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How much caffeine is contained in different drinks

 - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Caffeine (also matein, guaranin) is a purine alkaloid, colorless or white bitter crystals. It is a psychostimulant, found in coffee, tea and many soft drinks. Caffeine is found in plants such as coffee tree, tea, cocoa, mate, guarana, cola, and some others. It is synthesized by plants to protect against insects that eat leaves, stems and grains, and to encourage pollinators.

Knowledge of most people about caffeine is limited, for example: "There is a lot of coffee in it, in tea less." This is fundamentally not true. In fact, there are unexpected nuances. We decided to see how much caffeine is contained in one standard portion of the drinks you know. And we also compared this amount with a safe daily intake of 300 mg of caffeine.

A cup of tea

Чашка чая - Содержание кофеина в напитках

A cup of green tea

Чашка зеленого чая - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Bank of Coca-Cola

Банка Coca-Cola - Содержание кофеина в напитках

A cup of black tea

Чашка черного чая - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Bank of Mountain Dew

Банка Mountain Dew - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Espresso Cup

Чашка Эспрессо - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Red Bull Bank

Банка Red-Bull - Содержание кофеина в напитках

A cup of instant coffee

Кружка растворимого кофе - Содержание кофеина в напитках

A cup of ground coffee

Чашка молотого кофе - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Grande Cappuccino from StarBucks

Гранде капучино из StarBucks - Содержание кофеина в напитках
 - Содержание кофеина в напитках
 - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Are common:

  • Systematic name: 1,3,7-Trimethyl-1H-purin-2,6 (3H, 7H) -dione
  • Traditional names: 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, guaranine, caffeine, matein, methylteobromine, tein
  • Chem. formula: C8H10N4O2
  • Rat. formula: C8H10N4O2

Physical properties:

  • The state of the solid crystalline substance is colorless or white, odorless.
  • Molar mass 194.19 g / mol
  • Density 1.23 g / cm3

Thermal properties:

  • M.f .: 234 C
  • T. sub: 180 C

Chemical properties:

  • pKa: 1.22

Structure:

  • The dipole moment: 3.64 A

Classification:

  • Reg. CAS number: 58-08-2
  • PubChem: 2519
  • Reg. EINECS number: 200-362-1
  • RTECS: EV6475000
  • ChemSpider: 2424

Security:

  • LD50: 192 mg / kg (mice, orally)
  • Toxicity: Moderately Toxic

In animals and humans, it stimulates the central nervous system, enhances cardiac activity, accelerates the pulse, causes the blood vessels to expand (mainly the vessels of the skeletal muscles, brain, heart, kidneys), increases urination, reduces platelet aggregation (however, in some cases, opposite effects are noted) . This is due to the fact that caffeine blocks the enzyme phosphodiesterase, which destroys cAMP, which leads to its accumulation in cells. cAMP is a secondary mediator through which the effects of various physiologically active substances, primarily adrenaline, are realized. Thus, the accumulation of cAMP results in adrenaline-like effects.

In medicine, caffeine is used as a part of the remedy for headaches, with migraine, as a stimulant for breathing and cardiac activity for colds, to increase mental and physical performance, to eliminate drowsiness.

Dosages for caffeine should be selected individually. Higher doses for adults inside: single 0.3 g, daily 1.0 g, intravenously: single 0.4 g, daily 1 g.

Caffeine is on the list of vital and essential medicines.

History of discovery

It was discovered and named "caffeine" in 1819 by the German chemist Ferdinand Runge. In 1827, Oudry isolated a new alkaloid from tea leaves and called it thein. Caffeine in its pure form was first obtained in 1828 (Pelletier and Kavantu). In 1832, its composition was established by Weller and Pfaff with Liebig. In 1838, Iobst and G. Ya. Mulder proved the identity of theine and caffeine. The structure of caffeine was clarified by the end of the XIX century by Hermann Emil Fischer, who was also the first person who artificially synthesized caffeine. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1902, which he received partly because of this work.

Chemical structure and properties

The chemical name of caffeine is 1,3,7-trimethyl-xanthine. In an alkaline medium (at pH> 9), it turns into caffeine C7H12N4O. By its structure and pharmacological properties, caffeine is close to theobromine and theophylline; all three alkaloids belong to the group of methylxanthines. Caffeine acts better on the central nervous system, and theophylline and theobromine - as stimulants of cardiac activity and mild diuretics. Caffeine, like other purine alkaloids, gives a positive murexide reaction, when heated with Nessler's reagent, caffeine forms a red-brown precipitate, unlike theobromine, giving under such conditions a light brown color.

Physical properties

White needles crystals of bitter taste, odorless. It is readily soluble in chloroform, poorly soluble in cold water (1:60), easily - in hot (1: 2), difficult to soluble in ethanol (1:50). Solutions have a neutral reaction; sterilized at +100 C for 30 minutes. ??? m.p. 234 C.

Illustrator Natalya Roshchenko

Via http://www.caffeineinformer.com/the-caffeine-database

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