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How much caffeine is in different drinks

 - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Caffeine (also matein, guaranin) is a purine alkaloid, colorless or white bitter crystals. It is a psychostimulant found in coffee, tea and many soft drinks. Caffeine is found in plants such as coffee tree, tea, cocoa, mate, guarana, cola, and some others. It is synthesized by plants to protect against insects that eat leaves, stalks and seeds, as well as to encourage pollinators.

The knowledge of most people about caffeine is limited, for example: “There is a lot of coffee in it, less in tea”. This is fundamentally not true. In fact, there are unexpected nuances. We decided to see how much caffeine is contained in one standard portion of familiar drinks. We also compared this amount with a safe daily intake of caffeine 300 mg.

Cup of tea

Чашка чая - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Cup of green tea

Чашка зеленого чая - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Coca-Cola Can

Банка Coca-Cola - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Cup of black tea

Чашка черного чая - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Mountain Dew Bank

Банка Mountain Dew - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Espresso Cup

Чашка Эспрессо - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Bank Red-Bull

Банка Red-Bull - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Instant Coffee Mug

Кружка растворимого кофе - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Cup of ground coffee

Чашка молотого кофе - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Starbucks cappuccino grande

Гранде капучино из StarBucks - Содержание кофеина в напитках
 - Содержание кофеина в напитках
 - Содержание кофеина в напитках

Are common:

  • Systematic name: 1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6 (3H, 7H) -dione
  • Traditional names: 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, guaranine, caffeine, matein, methylteobromine, thein
  • Chem. Formula: C8H10N4O2
  • Rac Formula: C8H10N4O2

Physical properties:

  • The state of a solid crystalline substance is colorless or white in color, odorless.
  • Molar mass 194.19 g / mol
  • Density 1.23 g / cm3

Thermal properties:

  • T. melt: 234 C
  • T. Subl .: 180 C

Chemical properties:

  • pKa: 1.22

Structure:

  • Dipole moment: 3.64 D

Classification:

  • Reg. CAS number: 58-08-2
  • PubChem: 2519
  • Reg. EINECS Number: 200-362-1
  • RTECS: EV6475000
  • ChemSpider: 2424

Security:

  • LD50: 192 mg / kg (mouse, oral)
  • Toxicity: moderately toxic

In animals and humans, it stimulates the central nervous system, strengthens heart activity, accelerates the pulse, causes dilation of blood vessels (mainly skeletal muscle vessels, brain, heart, kidneys), increases urinary output, reduces platelet aggregation (however, in some cases, opposite effects are observed) . This is due to the fact that caffeine blocks the enzyme phosphodiesterase, which destroys cAMP, which leads to its accumulation in cells. cAMP is a secondary mediator through which the effects of various physiologically active substances, primarily adrenaline, are effected. Thus, the accumulation of cAMP leads to adrenaline-like effects.

In medicine, caffeine is used in the composition of funds for headaches, with migraines, as a stimulant of respiration and cardiac activity in case of catarrhal diseases, to increase mental and physical performance, to eliminate drowsiness.

Dosages for caffeine should be selected individually. Higher doses for adults inside: single 0.3 g, daily 1.0 g, intravenous: single 0.4 g, daily 1 g

Caffeine is on the list of essential and essential drugs.

Discovery history

Opened and named "caffeine" in 1819 by the German chemist Ferdinand Runge. In 1827, Oudry isolated a new alkaloid from tea leaves and called it theine. Caffeine in its purest form was first obtained in 1828 (Pelletier and Cavantu). In 1832, its composition was established by Veller and Pfaff with Liebig. In 1838, Iobst and G. Ya. Mulder proved the identity of theine and caffeine. The structure of caffeine was discovered by the end of the 19th century by Hermann Emil Fischer, who was also the first person to artificially synthesize caffeine. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1902, which he received in part because of this work.

Chemical structure and properties

The chemical name of caffeine is 1,3,7-trimethyl-xanthine. In alkaline medium (at pH> 9), it turns into cadidine C7H12N4O. By structure and pharmacological properties, caffeine is close to theobromine and theophylline; all three alkaloids belong to the group of methylxanthines. Caffeine acts better on the central nervous system, and theophylline and theobromine - as stimulants of cardiac activity and light diuretics. Caffeine, like other purine alkaloids, gives a positive murexide reaction; when heated with Nessler's reagent, caffeine forms a red-brown precipitate, unlike theobromine, which produces light brown staining under such conditions.

Physical properties

White needles of a bitter taste, odorless. It is soluble in chloroform, poorly soluble in cold water (1:60), easily in hot (1: 2), difficult to dissolve in ethanol (1:50). Solutions are neutral; sterilized at +100 C for 30 minutes. T pl. 234 C.

Illustrator Natalya Roshchenko

Via http://www.caffeineinformer.com/the-caffeine-database