Types of bleeding and first aid rules you need to know!
Bleeding - the release of blood outside the vascular bed or the heart into the environment (external bleeding), into the body cavity or the lumen of a hollow organ (internal bleeding). Examples of external bleeding are metrorrhagia (uterine), melena (intestinal), internal - hemopericardium, hemothorax, hemoperitoneum, hemarthrosis (respectively, in the cardiac shirt cavity, in the pleural cavity, in the abdominal and articular cavity).
The need for first aid for bleeding due to the danger to human health and life. It is important not only to know what is the danger of bleeding and what kind of help should be given to the injured person, but also to be able to determine the type of bleeding . On the characteristic signs of types of bleeding and methods of first aid in case of their occurrence later in the article.
Types of bleeding - characteristic signs
Since first aid for venous bleeding differs from first aid, for example, for arterial bleeding, it is necessary to clearly understand the damage to which vessels you have encountered.
There are four main types of bleeding :
The danger of bleeding is:
- acute blood loss;
- risk of infection;
- the formation of a pulsating hematoma;
- air penetration into the damaged vessel.
Determine the type of bleeding :
- Capillary (slight and uniform release of blood from the damaged surface).
- Venous (uniform and fast outflow of dark red blood without signs of spouting; formation of clots is possible).
- Arterial (pulsating (sometimes discontinuous) jet of bright red blood, which flows with great speed).
- Internal (pale skin, cold sweat, dizziness, weak pulse, fainting, shallow breathing; blood does not flow out). If the bleeding is localized in the area of the lungs, blueing of the skin and mucous membranes, rapid and / or shortness of breath, coughing up with blood are observed. Bleeding in the region of the abdominal cavity can manifest itself, in addition to the main signs, vomiting with blood, tachycardia, a decrease in pressure. Hematomas occur in case of hemorrhage in the large muscles.
First aid rules depending on the type of bleeding
As a rule, the maximum danger of capillary bleeding is not blood loss (it is minimal), but infection .
Therefore, when small vessels are damaged, it is enough:
- wash the wound with water (naturally, clean);
- process the wound edges with an antiseptic;
- put on a gauze bandage.
If you have determined that you are dealing with venous bleeding , the procedure for this type of bleeding is as follows:
- imposing a pressure bandage (aseptic);
- if a pressure bandage does not help, a rope or a twisted towel, belt, etc., is applied to the soft lining. (location - below the damaged area) with attachment of the note with the time of overlay; leave the harness can be no more than 1 hour in cold weather and no more than 2 hours in hot weather.
One of the most dangerous types of bleeding is considered arterial , because in this case the risk of death due to blood loss increases significantly. In this case it is necessary:
- only in the absence of fractures - lift the limb;
- put a harness (or equivalent) above the injury site;
- during the search for material for the harness, you can press the artery (also above the injury site) at the pulsation site;
- in case of violation of the integrity of certain arteries (shoulder, elbow, popliteal or femoral), the limb can be raised and secured in a bent position.
If the symptoms suggest the presence of internal bleeding , it is necessary to ensure the immobility of the victim, namely:
- with hemorrhage in the chest area - half-sitting position + cushion under the knees;
- with hemorrhage into the abdominal cavity - prone position.
Someone to ease the bleeding will help the cold, which is applied to the expected location of the bleeding.
First aid should be immediately called for any type of bleeding other than capillary. Remember that it is forbidden to get into the wound, try to remove any objects from it or remove the blood-soaked bandage.