Types of bleeding and first aid rules you need to know!
Bleeding - the release of blood beyond the vascular bed or the heart into the environment (external bleeding), into the body cavity or lumen of the hollow organ (internal bleeding). Examples of external bleeding are metrorrhagia (uterus), melena (intestinal), internal - hemopericardium, hemothorax, hemoperitoneum, hemarthrosis (respiratory cavity, pleural cavity, abdominal and articular cavity, respectively).
The need for first aid in bleeding is caused by the danger to human health and life. It is important not only to know what the danger of bleeding is and what kind of help a wounded person needs, but also to be able to determine the type of bleeding . On the characteristic features of the types of bleeding and the methods of providing first aid in case of their occurrence later in the article.
Types of bleeding - characteristic features
Since the first aid for venous bleeding differs from the first aid, say, with arterial bleeding, it is necessary to clearly understand, with the damage of which vessels you have encountered.
There are four main types of bleeding :
The risk of bleeding is:
- Acute blood loss;
- Risk of infection;
- Formation of pulsating hematoma;
- Penetration of air into the damaged vessel.
Determine the type of bleeding :
- Capillary (insignificant and uniform discharge of blood from the damaged surface).
- Venous (uniform and rapid leakage of dark red blood without signs of flowing, it is possible to form clots).
- Arterial (pulsating (sometimes intermittent) jet of bright red blood that flows with great speed).
- Internal (pallor of the skin, cold sweat, dizziness, weak pulse, fainting, shallow breathing, blood does not flow out). If the bleeding is localized in the lungs, blue skin and mucous membranes, rapid and / or shortness of breath, coughing up with blood are observed. Bleeding to the abdominal cavity can manifest, in addition to the main symptoms, vomiting with blood, tachycardia, and lowering of pressure. Hematomas occur in the case of hemorrhage in the large muscles.
First aid rules depending on the type of bleeding
As a rule, the maximum danger of capillary bleeding lies not in blood loss (it is minimal), but in infection .
Therefore, if small vessels are damaged,
- Wash the wound with water (naturally, clean);
- Treat the edges of the wound with an antiseptic;
- Impose a gauze bandage.
If you have determined that you are dealing with venous bleeding , the procedure for this type of bleeding is as follows:
- Application of a pressure bandage (aseptic);
- If the pressure bandage does not help, a tourniquet or a twisted towel, belt, etc. is applied to the soft lining. (Location - below the damaged area) with a note attached with the time of overlap; Leave the tourniquet no more than 1 hour in cold weather and no more than 2 hours in hot weather.
One of the most dangerous types of bleeding is considered arterial , because in this case the risk of death as a result of hemorrhage is significantly increased. In this case it is necessary:
- Only in the absence of fractures - raise the limb;
- Apply a tourniquet (or its analog) above the injury site;
- During the search for material for the harness, you can press the artery (also above the fault location) at the ripple point;
- If the integrity of certain arteries (humerus, elbow, popliteal or femoral) is violated, the limb can be raised and fixed in a bent position.
If the symptoms suggest the presence of internal bleeding , it is necessary to ensure the immobility of the victim, namely:
- With a hemorrhage in the thoracic region - the position of the half-sider's + cushion under the knees;
- With a hemorrhage in the abdominal cavity - lying position.
The cold, which is applied to the supposed site of localization of bleeding, will help alleviate the bleeding.
An ambulance should be immediately called for in any type of bleeding, except capillary. Remember that to climb into the wound with your hands, try to remove any objects from it or remove the bandage soaked in blood is prohibited.