Types of bleeding and the rules of first aid you need to know!
Bleeding - the release of blood beyond the vascular bed or heart into the environment (external bleeding), into the body cavity or lumen of a hollow organ (internal bleeding). Examples of external bleeding are metrorrhagia (uterine), melena (intestinal), internal bleeding - hemopericardium, hemothorax, hemoperitoneum, hemarthrosis (respectively, in the cavity of the cardiac chemis, in the pleural cavity, in the abdominal and articular cavities).
The need for first aid for bleeding due to the danger to human health and life. It is important not only to know what the danger of bleeding is and what kind of help it is necessary to provide to a wounded person, but also to be able to determine the type of bleeding . About the characteristic signs of types of bleeding and methods of first aid in case of their occurrence later in the article.
Types of bleeding - characteristic signs
Since first aid for venous bleeding is different from first aid, for example, for arterial bleeding, it is necessary to clearly understand what kind of vessels you have damaged.
There are four main types of bleeding :
The danger of bleeding is:
- acute blood loss;
- risk of infection;
- the formation of a pulsating hematoma;
- the penetration of air into a damaged vessel.
Determine the type of bleeding :
- Capillary (slight and uniform discharge of blood from a damaged surface).
- Venous (uniform and rapid flow of dark red blood without signs of gushing; clots may form).
- Arterial (pulsating (sometimes intermittent) stream of bright red blood, which flows at a high speed).
- Internal (pallor, cold sweat, dizziness, weak pulse, fainting, shallow breathing; blood does not flow out). If bleeding is localized in the area of the lungs, blue skin and mucous membranes, rapid and / or shortness of breath, coughing up blood are observed. Bleeding in the abdominal region can manifest itself, in addition to the main symptoms, vomiting with blood, tachycardia, and a decrease in pressure. Hematomas occur in case of hemorrhage in the large muscles.
First aid rules depending on the type of bleeding
As a rule, the maximum danger of capillary bleeding is not blood loss (it is minimal), but infection .
Therefore, with damage to small vessels, it is enough:
- rinse the wound with water (naturally clean);
- treat the edges of the wound with an antiseptic;
- apply a gauze bandage.
If you determine that you are dealing with venous bleeding , the procedure for this type of bleeding is as follows:
- applying a pressure dressing (aseptic);
- if the pressure bandage does not help, a tourniquet or twisted towel, belt, etc. is applied to the soft lining. (location - below the damaged area) with the application of a note with the overlay time; You can leave the tourniquet for no more than 1 hour in cold weather and no more than 2 hours in hot weather.
One of the most dangerous types of bleeding is considered arterial , because in this case, the risk of death as a result of blood loss increases significantly. In this case, you must:
- only in the absence of fractures - to raise a limb;
- apply a tourniquet (or its equivalent) above the injury site;
- during the search for material for the tourniquet, you can press the artery (also above the place of damage) in the place of pulsation;
- in case of violation of the integrity of certain arteries (brachial, ulnar, popliteal or femoral) limb can be raised and fixed in a bent position.
If symptoms suggest the presence of internal bleeding , it is necessary to ensure the immobility of the victim, namely:
- with hemorrhage in the chest area - half-sitting position + roller under the knees;
- with hemorrhage in the abdominal cavity - lying position.
The cold, which is applied to the alleged location of the bleeding, will help to slightly reduce bleeding.
Ambulance must be called immediately for any type of bleeding, except capillary. Remember that climbing into the wound with your hands, trying to remove any objects from it, or removing a bandage soaked in blood is prohibited.