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Caffeine in our body. What consequences?

Кофеин в нашем теле. Какие последствия?

Caffeine (also matein, guaranine) is a purine pseudo- alkaloid , colorless or white bitter crystals. It is a psychostimulant found in coffee, tea and many soft drinks. Caffeine is found in plants such as coffee tree, tea, cocoa, mate, guarana, cola, and some others. It is synthesized by plants to protect against insects that eat leaves, stalks and seeds, as well as to encourage pollinators.

How many times have I heard the phrase "I can't do it without coffee!" Well what can I say? - you have big problems, friends. We read below and VNIKA;)

In animals and humans, it stimulates the central nervous system, strengthens cardiac activity, accelerates the pulse, causes dilation of blood vessels (mainly vessels of skeletal muscles, brain, heart, kidneys), increases urinary output, reduces platelet aggregation. This is due to the fact that caffeine blocks the enzyme phosphodiesterase, destroying cAMP, which leads to its accumulation in cells. cAMP is a secondary mediator through which the effects of various physiologically active substances, primarily adrenaline, are carried out. Thus, the accumulation of cAMP leads to adrenaline-like effects.

In medicine, caffeine is used in the composition of funds for headaches, with migraines, as a stimulant of respiration and cardiac activity in case of catarrhal diseases, to improve mental and physical performance, to eliminate drowsiness. Dosages for caffeine should be selected individually. Higher doses for adults inside: single 0.3 g, daily 1.0 g, intravenous: single 0.4 g, daily 1 g

Caffeine is on the list of essential and essential medicines.

Discovery history

Opened and named "caffeine" in 1819 by the German chemist Ferdinand Runge.

In 1827, Udry isolated a new alkaloid from tea leaves and called it theine. Caffeine in its purest form was first obtained in 1828 (Pelletier and Cavantu). In 1832 its composition was established by Veller and Pfaff with Liebig. In 1838, Iobst and G. Ya. Mulder proved the identity of theine and caffeine.

The structure of caffeine was found out by the end of the 19th century by Hermann Emil Fischer, who was also the first person who artificially synthesized caffeine. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1902, which he received in part because of this work.

Chemical structure and properties

The chemical name of caffeine is 1,3,7-trimethyl-xanthine. In alkaline medium (at pH> 9), it turns into cadidine C7H12N4O. By structure and pharmacological properties, caffeine is close to theobromine and theophylline; all three alkaloids belong to the group of methylxanthines. Caffeine acts better on the central nervous system, and theophylline and theobromine - as stimulants of cardiac activity and light diuretics.

Caffeine, like other purine alkaloids, gives a positive murexide reaction; when heated with Nessler's reagent, caffeine forms a red-brown precipitate, unlike theobromine, which produces light brown staining under such conditions.

Physical properties

White needles of a bitter taste, odorless. It is soluble in chloroform, poorly soluble in cold water (1:60), easily in hot (1: 2), difficult to dissolve in ethanol (1:50). Solutions are neutral; sterilized at + 100 ° C for 30 minutes. T pl. 234C

Кофеин в нашем теле. Какие последствия?

As caffeine enters the bloodstream, our body receives a signal of an attack. He introduces a state of emergency and conducts general mobilization for his defense. The pupils dilate to better see the threat, the pulse quickens and blood pressure rises to better supply blood to the muscles. Mobilizing all forces in its defense and seeking to increase the blood supply to the muscles, the body relegates the digestive system to a secondary role and translates it into a “dependent ration”. Therefore, coffee lovers often have problems with digestion.

The liver, going into the "fight or flee" mode (the stress response mode of the body), fills the blood with sugars and fats. Caffeine stimulates the nervous system of the adrenal glands, bringing the body into a state of full "combat readiness."

And you thought that coffee gives you strength! The human body can often not be in such an increased degree of stress without serious health consequences, such as heart attacks and hypertensive crisis. For such a caffeine "explosion" your body pays too much. In the morning you feel lethargy and lethargy. You need to drink a cup of coffee again, and the vicious circle closes again.

“Using stimulants is just the same as pushing a horse. They act for a short time, but with constant use they lead to catastrophic consequences. ” Steven Czernyski, "Coffee Blues".

Many people use coffee to stimulate bowel movement. On an empty stomach, coffee acts as a laxative. However, it does not stimulate defecation coffee. A cup of hot water with lemon and natural honey will have exactly the same effect. In fact, coffee consumption, on the contrary, often leads to constipation. Caffeine pulls water out of the digestive tract, which makes fecal matter more solid.

And any food eaten after a cup of coffee will not be completely digested and assimilated, because the blood supply to the digestive tract is weakened.

Caffeine exacerbates many problems, such as dry skin, itching, and hand tremor. Like nicotine and alcohol, caffeine is a vasoconstrictor that worsens the supply of skin with moisture and blood. By intensifying dehydration, caffeine accelerates the aging process of the body. This means the premature appearance of wrinkles and folds on the skin and a decrease in the efficiency of metabolism.

There is also a lot of evidence that nutrients are excreted in the urine after drinking a cup of coffee.

Caffeine leads to the loss of thiamine and other B vitamins, which provokes nutritional disorders. It reduces the absorption of iron and can cause its deficiency in the body. The phosphoric acid contained in coffee makes it difficult to absorb calcium. These studies indicate an increased risk of fracture in women who consume caffeine. And if caffeine is mixed with sugar, then the loss of minerals by the body even increases.

You drink a cup of coffee, and after two hours, the body needs calcium, magnesium and potassium in your urine! Where did they come from? Of course, not from the coffee you drunk!

Caffeine detoxification is performed by the liver, which creates an additional excessive load for it.

Caffeine is a psychotropic drug, just like morphine, nicotine, and cocaine. The rise you experience when taking it has a cumulative effect and is quickly addictive.

Caffeine can provoke DNA and RNA replication errors, which in turn leads to a failure in the transmission of biological information.

Coffee interferes with good sleep, and maybe that's why, in order to come to your senses in the morning, you need another dose of this drink. Coffee contains not only caffeine, but also a large amount of toxic chemicals. Some of them are carcinogenic.