What do bee honeycombs consist of?
Bee honeycomb - wax buildings of bees, designed to store stocks of food (honey and perga) and rearing the offspring; are also a nest of a bee family. Bee honeycombs consist of hexagonal prismatic cells located on both sides of the common mediastinum, which can be artificial (artificial wax).
Types of cells
In honeycomb cells different cells are distinguished: bees, drone, transitional, queen cells.
The size of the honeycombs depends on the shape and size of the standard beehive frame. In modern beekeeping, honeycomb can be extracted from the hive by using a frame system. The basis for the new honeycomb is the waxed beetle waxed on the frame - a thin sheet of beeswax with the bottoms extruded on both sides and the beginnings of the cells. Beginning to work on a new honeycomb, bees first pull out the beginnings of cells, and then build them up by adding the wax that they themselves allocate. The result is a two-sided honeycomb with the correct rows of bee cells.
The first frame hive, as is commonly believed in the domestic tradition, was invented in 1814 by the outstanding beekeeper PI Prokopovich. On the priority in this matter also apply Jan Jazhon (created his collapsible hive in 1838) and August von Berlepsh (1852). However, the framework construction, close to modern, was patented in the US by Langstroth in 1851; Frames in the hive of Langstroth were extracted from above, it was this design that became the most widespread in the world.
In the hive the honeycombs are arranged vertically. Honey packed honeycombs in the standard framework contain about 4 kg of honey, which depends on the depth of the cell. As a rule, the upper part of the frame of the honeycomb is thicker, and taper to the bottom. Space for the passage of bees between the honeycombs is called a street, its standard width is 12-13 mm.
Bee honeycombs are the most advanced insect structures. Cells are built from two sides, and the way of "fixing" each cell does not provide any gaps and inconsistencies in all three dimensions. Thanks to this, at least one wax departs for the construction of one cell - bees spend about 13 mg of wax, 30 mg of drone, and 140-150 g for the construction of the entire honeycomb.
Hexagonal shape is the most economical and effective figure for honeycomb construction. The horizontal diameter of the bee cell is 5.3 - 5.7 mm (there are about four cells per cm), the depth is 10-12 mm; thickness honeycomb with an unsealed brood - an average of 22 mm, and after their sealing - up to 25 mm or more. The cell volume is about 0.28 cm3. When building honeycomb honeycombs, the bees use the magnetic field of the earth as a reference point. Cells of honeycombs are drone, honey and brood. Differ in size and depth. Honey - more deeply, drone - wider.
Honey combs without bees are called sushi in beekeeping. The land is placed in families for their expansion, used to form new families (layers).