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Blood Donor's Guide (How to donate blood)

Blood Donor's Guide (How to donate blood)

Donation of blood (from Latin donare - "donate") and (or) its components - voluntary donation of blood and (or) its components, as well as activities aimed at organizing and ensuring the safety of the procurement of blood and its components. Blood taken from the donor (donor blood) is used for research and educational purposes; in the production of blood components, medicines and medical products. Clinical use of donor blood and (or) its components is associated with transfusion (transfusion) to the recipient for therapeutic purposes and the creation of supplies of donor blood and (or) its components. Cipher MKB-10 Z52.0 Blood donor.

Content

List of points of reception of donor blood

  1. Emergency hospital - st. Bratislavskaya, 3. Department of Transfusiology. Reception of donors daily, from 9:00 to 12:00.
  2. Regional clinical hospital - st. Baggoutovskaya, 1. Donors reception daily, from 9:00 to 14:00.
  3. Central city blood transfusion station - st. Maxima Berlin, 12, at the Kiev Research Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion. Reception of donors daily, from 9:00 to 15:00.
  4. "Ohmadet" Oncohematological center of the Ukrainian children's specialized hospital of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine - st. Sholudenko, 10. Reception of donors - PN, BT, SR, from 9:00 to 14:00.
  5. National Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery. Nicholas Amosov Str. Amosova 6, (044) 275-40-44.
  6. Central Clinical Hospital- Silkworm, 39/1
  7. City Hospital No. 2, Krakow, 13
  8. City Hospital No. 3, ul. Petra Zaporozhets, 26
  9. City Hospital No. 10, Prospect of the 40th Anniversary of October, 59a
  10. City Hospital No. 12, Podvysotsky, 4a
  11. Center for Bone Marrow Transplantation, Kyiv, Victory Avenue, 119/121
  12. National Cancer Institute, Lomonosov St., 33/41, 1st floor, tel. (044) 259-01-94
  13. Scientific Center of Radiation Medicine, Victory Avenue, 119, tel. (044) 450-81-92
  14. Road transfusion station of the South-Western Railway, st. N. Pimonenko, 8

A donor can be any practically healthy person aged 18 to 60 years, if he has no contraindications.

The standard volume of one blood flow is 450 ml. + 40 ml. blood for analysis (about 10% of the total blood volume).

People with a body weight of less than 50 kg or a height of less than 150 cm are allowed to donate individually at the discretion of the transfusiologist.

What kind of medical examination should I take to become a donor?

All the necessary tests are usually done directly at blood transfusion stations. Some blood donated by the donor is taken for analysis. Are determined: blood type and Rh factor; data from the general blood test (hemoglobin, leukocytes, erythrocytes, ESR, etc.); as well as markers of pathogens of blood-borne transmissible (transmitted with blood) infections: human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses; the causative agent of syphilis.

If desired, after 1-2 days the donor can come with a passport to the Station and get the results of his tests. Results are reported only in person and in private. If the blood shows signs of infection, only the blood donator and the doctor will know about it. And the doctor will advise you where you can go in order to find out the health situation.

In addition to the blood test, a potential donor undergoes a medical examination, during which the doctor measures pressure, temperature, pulse, and questions about his health. Before the procedure of blood donation each potential donor fills in a special "questionnaire of the donor", in which he answers questions about the state of his health and the transferred diseases.

The final decision on the admission to the rabbit is made by the transfusiologist, who also assesses the neuropsychiatric status of the donor and can withdraw it if he is suspected of using drugs, alcohol, and behaving asocial ways of life.

How often can I donate blood and its components?

There are different types of donation - donation of whole blood and the donation of components. Men can donate whole blood not more than 5 times a year, women - no more than 4 times a year. After giving blood, it should take at least 60 days before the donor can again donate blood. After giving blood, it should take at least 30 days before the donor can take the plasma.

After the delivery of plasma must pass at least 14 days before the donor can again take blood or plasma.

How does blood donation differ from the delivery of plasma?

With the delivery of plasma, blood after separation from it part of the plasma immediately poured back into the body of the donor. Plasma can be taken up to 6-12 times a year at intervals of not less than 2 weeks, and whole blood - no more than 3-5 times a year at intervals of 3 months.

After five regular krovodach it's better to take a break for 3-4 months. Plasma is restored within a few days, the blood - within a month.

The process of removing the plasma takes about 40 minutes, blood sampling - about 10-15 minutes. However, the total time that the donor will need to spend in a medical institution in the first case will be about two hours, in the second case - about one and a half hours.

How long does it really take to wait after a risky situation (when can you get HIV or viral hepatitis) so that the tests are informative?

Not less than 6 months. In no case should you hide the risk situation from the doctor at the donor point. Hidden information can be dangerous to the recipient.

Can a smoker be a donor?

Smoking is not a contraindication to donation. Experts recommend that you refrain from smoking an hour before the blood donation procedure and do not smoke for two hours after delivery.

What types of blood donation exist?

The most common method - the delivery of whole blood. It is taken from the vein on the arm on an average of 450 ml at a time and lasts 5-10 minutes.

It is possible to take not whole blood, but its components, for example, a plasma - a procedure called plasmapheresis, or platelets - thrombocytopheresis.

During these procedures, only the components necessary for clinical use are selectively extracted from the blood of the donor, and all other components are returned to the bloodstream.

Thus, the dose of platelets can be obtained from 450 ml of whole blood donated, but most patients need several doses at once. Thrombocytopheresis allows to increase the number of platelets from one donor. The volume taken during the procedure includes about 200x109 cells dissolved in a small (150-200ml) amount of plasma. As a rule, the taking of platelets is carried out on special apparatuses, requires a certain preparation of the donor and can last more than an hour

Procedures for plasmapheresis are much more frequent. There are two ways to conduct them: manual or even called "intermittent", when a donor takes a dose of blood, immediately centrifuges, separating into red blood cells and plasma. Erythrocytes are returned to the donor, and plasma is processed in a special way for subsequent transfusion to recipients. With automatic plasmapheresis, the process takes place by means of a special apparatus continuously. The whole procedure takes 30-40 minutes

In order not to harm your health, the donor needs to maintain intervals between blood donation procedures. Whole blood can be taken every two months, but no more than 5 times a year. Plasma or platelets can be taken once in two weeks

How long does it take to drink alcohol before donating blood?

Must pass at least 48 hours after taking alcohol.

What kind of medical examination should I take to become a donor?

All the necessary tests are usually done directly at blood transfusion stations. Some blood donated by the donor is taken for analysis. Are determined: blood type and Rh factor; data from the general blood test (hemoglobin, leukocytes, erythrocytes, ESR, etc.); as well as markers of pathogens of blood-borne transmissible (transmitted with blood) infections: human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses; the causative agent of syphilis.

If desired, after 1-2 days the donor can come with a passport to the Station and get the results of his tests. Results are reported only in person and in private. If the blood shows signs of infection, only the blood donator and the doctor will know about it. And the doctor will advise you where you can go in order to find out the health situation.

In addition to the blood test, a potential donor undergoes a medical examination, during which the doctor measures pressure, temperature, pulse, and questions about his health. Before the procedure of blood donation each potential donor fills in a special "questionnaire of the donor", in which he answers questions about the state of his health and the transferred diseases.

The final decision on the admission to the rabbit is made by the transfusiologist, who also assesses the neuropsychiatric status of the donor and can withdraw it if he is suspected of using drugs, alcohol, and behaving asocial ways of life.

How to prepare for blood donation?

Krovodacha is carried out after a light breakfast (not on an empty stomach), preferably in the previous evening is not fat, roast and milk, sweet tea, biscuits, biscuits, fruits are recommended.

It is necessary to refrain from drinking alcohol 48 hours before blood donation, as well as from using aspirin, analgin and drugs containing aspirin and analgesics 72 hours before the procedure, if possible, to refrain from smoking an hour before the procedure, you should also sleep.

What should be done to restore the body after blood donation?

On the day of the bedrock, heavy physical and sports loads, lifting of weights are not recommended.

There are no restrictions on driving a car on the day of the caravan.

For two days it is recommended to eat fully and regularly, drink at least 1-2 liters of fluid per day (alcohol is not recommended).

Further lead a habitual way of life.

Vaccinations after rabbitage can be done after 10 days. Complete restoration of the blood composition occurs within 5-7 days. The rate of recovery of different components of the blood is different. In order to quickly restore the composition of the blood, it is recommended to drink more liquid - juices, tea. Proper nutrition is necessary: ​​in the diet of the donor there must always be a protein, on which hemoglobin level in the blood depends. Products containing protein - meat, beets, buckwheat, lentils, beans and all legumes, fish, etc.

Is it possible to donate blood on a day off?

Unfortunately, most medical institutions that take blood samples do not work on weekends. This is due to the fact that a lot of specialists are engaged in the technological process of blood sampling - it is necessary not only to conduct blood sampling, it is necessary to conduct a medical examination of donors, check blood in the laboratory, divide the supplied blood into components, prepare it for further use.

Moscow blood transfusion stations work on Saturday. (Depending on the caller's region, information is provided on the work schedule of the nearest stations).

How is the donor's blood taken into account and in general the registration of donors?

The account of the blood donated by the donor and the donor account is maintained in the medical institution where the rabbit is carried out. When the donor of the reserve calls (the donor of the reserve is a donor who has less than 3 rabbits a year), a "donor reserve card" and a "donor's account card" are drawn up, in which passport data is entered in accordance with the presented document, donated blood and its components.

Information about the donor is simultaneously entered in the electronic database. While electronic databases are maintained in each region independently and are not connected with each other. In the future, they will all be united into a single information network of Russian donors.

When the donor of the reserve applies for the fourth time a year and wishes to regularly give blood or its components on a regular basis, he is transferred to the category of an active donor with the formulation of the "Medical card of an active donor".

When registering, each donor is also given a "Donor Questionnaire", filled in by himself or with the help of a medical registrar.

Donors can be divided into several categories: active (cadre), having three or more krovodachi (plazmodachi, citodachi) per year; donors of the reserve, who have less than three blood vessels (plazmodach, cytodatch); donor-relatives - persons giving blood for transfusion to relatives, friends, acquaintances.

Accounting forms are kept for 5 years, except for the "Donor's Registration Card", which is to be kept for 75 years. When withdrawing the donor from the account in the "Active donor's Medical Card" and in the "Donor's Registration Card", a record is made of the reason for withdrawing the donor and the total amount of the withdrawn blood or its components for the entire period of donation is summarized.

What is a single dose of blood donation?

For modern medicine, it is very important that as many people with a body weight of at least 50 kg give a total dose of 450 ml of blood and 600 ml of plasma. Physicians have to transfuse blood in large doses to one patient, and the less blood is taken from a smaller number of donors, the more safely and effectively it acts as a remedy. Donors are recommended 450 ml of blood lead and 600 ml of plasma dosage at least twice a year.

In some cases, the donor does not take whole blood, but only some of its components. The general name for the procedures for taking components is "apheresis" (selective capture)

For example, with a platelet thrombocytoperesis, the donor receives a platelet in a certain way, and the rest is returned.

Selective plasma taking is called "plasmapheresis". The procedure of plasmapheresis is performed by two methods: discrete and hardware. The procedure lasts an average of 45 minutes. The maximum volume of a single plasma dosage does not exceed 600 ml. The interval between plasmapheresis is 14 days.

Who needs donor blood?

One and half million Russians need blood transfusions every year. Every third inhabitant of the earth needs blood donors at least once in a lifetime. There are several categories of people who need donor blood.

There are people who need blood products in the queue for life. This is, first of all, patients with hemophilia. If clotting factors are sufficient, and the patient receives adequate supportive therapy from childhood, then it does not differ from an ordinary person and leads the life of an ordinary person. And without factors of blood coagulation, the life of such patients is simply impossible.

In the donor blood need patients with cancer. Modern treatment of malignant tumors involves the killing of tumor cells. Together with the tumor cells, normal hemopoiesis stops for a while. It is during this period that the patient needs maintenance therapy with components of the donor blood, in particular, platelets, which are not replaced, and in the near future, even theoretically not expected.

Donor blood is needed for patients with surgical pathology. These are people who need joint prosthetics, these are cardiosurgical patients. Surgical operations involve the trauma of blood vessels, tissues, with the need to restore lost components of the blood.

Blood transfusions are often required for women during childbirth. Always a certain number of women in labor are threatened with blood loss, which also needs to be compensated in order to save the life of the mother and child.

Also in the practice of pediatrics there is hemolytic disease of newborns, which can be diagnosed early and cured. For the period of such treatment, sick children need transfusions of a large number of different components of the blood.

Why do not they donate blood now, but components?

Blood, which was previously considered a universal transfusion medium, gave way to separate components, because as a result of scientific research and clinical observations it became clear that the patient should not be transfused with blood, but its individual components (platelets, erythrocyte mass, plasma).

Now, donors take whole blood, which is further divided into components, and directly components of blood. Donation is divided into three types: blood donation, plasma donation (including immune), blood cell donation.

What is plasmapheresis?

Plasmapheresis is a selective removal of plasma from the body. Plasma is the liquid part of the blood. It contains a wide variety of substances: proteins (including clotting factors), fats, carbohydrates, hormones, vitamins, salts, are necessary for the construction of body tissues and maintenance of their vital functions, as well as organic substances that regulate metabolism. Plasma is widely used for medicinal purposes in surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, oncology and other areas of medical practice.

Donor plasmapheresis is a method of obtaining plasma from a donor with the return of its own formed blood elements (erythrocytes, platelets, leukocytes).

Why is it necessary to give blood to platelets?

Platelets are blood cells that stop bleeding. They are needed by people who have violations of the collapsing system.

Modern treatment of malignant tumors involves the killing of tumor cells. Together with the tumor cells, normal hemopoiesis stops for a while. It is during this period that the patient needs maintenance therapy with components of the donor blood, in particular, platelets, which prevent the development of severe hemorrhage in patients.

A single dose of platelets can be obtained from every 400 grams of donor blood, but most patients need to transfuse several doses of platelets at a time. When transfusion of blood products from different donors, the patient significantly increases the risk of transfusion reactions and complications. To reduce this risk and increase the number of platelets obtained from a single donor, a special procedure is provided - thrombocytopheresis - when the donor for one donation delivers as much platelets as can be obtained from 3-4 doses of whole blood. This procedure requires a little more involvement from the donor than a simple blood donation. Because of the complexity of the procedure, platelet donors are often not enough.

You can give platelets every two weeks. These rates are associated with the rate of recovery of a normal number of platelets in the body.

What if I want to donate blood for a specific patient?

If you know the name and surname of the person for whom you want to donate blood, then it is enough to come to the medical institution where such a patient is and contact the donor point, which is usually located at the hospital.

You can also go to the blood transfusion station that serves this hospital and inform you that you are going to donate blood for a specific patient, indicating his name and place of treatment

It is necessary to agree preliminary the delivery of blood with the doctors who are treating the patient for whom you want to donate blood.

How does the delivery of blood affect health?

Delivery of blood on a regular basis is useful for the prevention of diseases of the cardiovascular system and, in addition, promotes self-renewal of the whole organism. Scientists from the University of Kuopio in Finland examined 5,000 men and found that regular blood-infusing heart attacks occur tens of times less often. American researchers from the Kansas Medical Center confirmed that men who are regular donors suffer 30% less heart attacks.

Moreover: the delivery of blood and subsequent renewal in the most direct way affect the improvement of the emotional state of a person. And in serious situations, for example, in case of an accident, the donor has a better chance of survival, since his body is more adapted to blood loss.

Do not get addicted to donating?

Addiction to donation does not arise: the development of blood constituents in the body of a healthy person is a complex self-regulating process, which is not affected by periodic blood donations. Just bloodletting in scientifically justified doses has some stimulating effect, so donors are mostly active and cheerful people. Those around it are sometimes regarded as "addicted" to the rabbit.

Is it harmful to donate blood? Is the human body suitable for this?

Surrendering blood is not harmful. The human body is evolutionarily adapted to bloodletting: it is a universal mechanism of reaction in trauma, and in women, in general, part of the functioning of the body.

What sensations can arise at delivery of a blood? I want to help, but I'm terribly afraid of all these procedures.

As for the sensations, everything is very individual. There are very small pain sensations when entering a needle into a vein, but only for a couple of seconds. Sometimes during the blood lead, more often in men, there are syncope. Women due to their physiology are better suited to small blood loss. Moreover, faints and speak more about psychological fear. Many donors do not observe any changes in their state of health and do not abolish the decrease in usual activity on the day of blood donation - go to work, etc. And many have euphoria from the consciousness of a good deed done.

What can and can not be done after blood donation?

Immediately after donating blood sit for 10-15 minutes. Refrain from smoking for an hour before and after the blood donation, refrain from drinking alcohol during the day. Do not remove the bandage for 3-4 hours, try not to wet it. Try not to be subjected to intensive physical activity during the day. Try to eat abundantly and eat regularly for two days. Use an increased amount of fluid for two days. Do not plan to give blood directly before the exams, competitions, delivery of the project, for a particularly busy period of work, etc.

I had bruises on my arm after giving blood. Is this the nurse's fault? How to remove a bruise?

Гематомы могут образовываться, если у вас тонкие или глубоко расположенные вены, или если после кроводачи локтевой сгиб был перевязан недостаточно туго. Такие случаи возможны и не являются следствием неумелых действий медработника. Чтобы скорее избавиться от гематомы, надо смешать троксевазин и гепариновую мазь и накладывать повязку с этой смесью на синяк.

Можно ли взять справку о сдаче крови, дающую отгул, через несколько месяцев после сдачи крови?

Can.

Руководство нашего предприятия плохо относятся к донорам, не разрешают проводить выездные акции. Можно ли как-то повлиять на руководство?

В соответствии с «Законом о донорстве крови и ее компонентов» (Статья 6. Обязанности администрации предприятий, учреждений и организаций по содействию донорству крови и ее компонентов). Руководители предприятий, учреждений, организаций, командиры (начальники) воинских частей обязаны:
оказывать содействие государственным и муниципальным организациям здравоохранения в привлечении граждан в ряды доноров;
беспрепятственно отпускать работника, являющегося донором, в организацию здравоохранения в день обследования и сдачи крови и ее компонентов.

Законом не предусмотрена ответственность за несоблюдение этих норм, поэтому администрации предприятий зачастую не только не оказывает содействие, но и препятствует донорству. Попробуйте обратиться за содействием в ближайшую Станцию переливания крови, у них, вероятно, есть опыт работы.

Почему донора, прописанного в одном регионе, не допускают к донорству в другом регионе?

This is related to security issues. The ban on not taking blood from arrivals from other regions is caused by a hypothetical assumption that in one region the donor is listed in the persons allocated from donation, and in another region there is no way to verify the opposite. With the introduction of a single information database, which will contain an all-Russian register of persons diverted from donation, this problem will be eliminated.

Do the military let go of blood donation?

Usually, military units receive blood donations during off-site donor actions on the territory of these units in agreement with the commanders (chiefs) of military units.

In accordance with the "Law on blood donation and its components" (Article 6. Duties of administration of enterprises, institutions and organizations to promote blood donation and its components). Heads of enterprises, institutions, organizations, commanders (heads) of military units are obliged:
to assist state and municipal health organizations in attracting citizens to the ranks of donors;
unhindered to release the employee, who is a donor, to the health organization on the day of examination and delivery of blood and its components.

Is it possible to restore the donor's card and all the blood donors, if it is long lost? How?

You can try to restore the facts of the blood lead on extracts from the orders for giving rest days for the blood given at the place of work. These orders should be kept at enterprises and archives for a long time

ABSOLUTE CONTRAINDICATIONS

A person who has undergone the diseases listed below can not be a donor regardless of the duration of the disease and the results of treatment:

Diseases transmitted through the blood (infectious)

  • AIDS, HIV carriers, persons at risk
  • syphilis (congenital or acquired)
  • viral hepatitis, positive test result for hepatitis markers
  • tuberculosis (all forms)
  • brucellosis
  • typhus
  • tularemia
  • leprosy

Diseases transmitted through the blood (parasitic)

  • echonococcosis
  • toxoplasmosis
  • trinanosomiasis
  • filariasis
  • leishmaniasis

Malignant neoplasms

Diseases of the blood

Cardiovascular diseases

  • hypertensive disease II-III st.
  • cardiac ischemia
  • atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis
  • obliterating endoarteritis, nonspecific aortoarteritis
  • recurrent thrombophlebitis
  • endocarditis, myocarditis
  • heart defects

Diseases of the respiratory system

  • bronchial asthma
  • bronchoectatic disease, emphysema, obstructive bronchitis
  • diffuse pneumosclerosis in the stage of decompensation

Diseases of the digestive system

  • achilles gastritis
  • peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum

Diseases of the liver and biliary tract

  • chronic liver diseases, including toxic nature and unclear etiology
  • calculous cholecystitis
  • cirrhosis of the liver

Diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract

  • diffuse and focal lesions of the kidneys
  • urolithiasis disease

Diffuse connective tissue diseases

Radiation sickness

Diseases of the endocrine system (in the case of pronounced impairment of functions and metabolism)

Diseases of the ENT organs

  • lake
  • other acute and chronic severe purulent-inflammatory diseases

Eye diseases

  • residual uveitis phenomena (iritis, iridocyclitis, chorioretinitis)
  • high myopia (6D or more)
  • trachoma

Skin diseases

  • psoriasis, erythroderma, eczema, lupus erythematosus, bladder dermatosis
  • fungal lesions (microsporia, trichophytosis, favus, epidermophytia)
  • deep mycoses
  • pustular skin diseases (pyoderma, furunculosis, sycosis)

Osteomyelitis

Postponed operations in the form of removal of any organ (stomach, kidney, spleen, etc.)

TEMPORARY CONTRAINDICATIONS

Risk Factor Release to:
The risk of contracting blood-borne diseases:
blood transfusion, its components 6 months
operations, including abortion (it is necessary to provide information on the nature and date of the operation) from the day of the operation 6 months
tattooing or acupuncture treatment 1 year
stay abroad for more than two months 6 months
stay in countries that are endemic for malaria (Asia, Africa, South and Central America) for more than three months 3 years
contact with patients with hepatitis A 3 months
contact with patients with hepatitis B or C 1 year
Infectious diseases not listed in the section "Absolute contraindications":
malaria, in the absence of symptoms and negative results of immunological tests 3 years
typhoid fever after recovery and complete clinical examination in the absence of severe functional disorders 1 year
angina, flu, ARVI - after recovery 1 month
Other infectious diseases - after recovery 6 months
Other diseases:
acute or chronic inflammatory processes in the stage of exacerbation, regardless of their location 1 month
body temperature above 37.0 degrees C 1 month
vegetative-vascular dystonia 1 month
allergic diseases in the acute stage 2 months
Inoculations:
Inoculation with killed vaccines (hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, typhus and paratyphoid, cholera, influenza), toxins 10 days
vaccination with live vaccines (brucellosis, plague, tularemia, BCG, smallpox, rubella, poliomyelitis) 1 month
antitetanus serum (in the absence of severe inflammatory phenomena at the injection site) 1 month
the introduction of immunoglobulin against hepatitis B 1 year
rabies vaccine 1 year
Mantoux reaction (in the absence of severe inflammatory phenomena at the injection site) 2 weeks
Medications:
antibiotics (after completion of the course) 2 weeks
analgesics and salicylates 3 days
Other:
period of pregnancy and childbirth 1 year
lactation 3 months
menstruation (after graduation) 5 days
removal of a tooth 10 days
alcohol consumption 2 nights