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Blood Donor Handbook (How to donate blood)

Blood Donor Handbook (How to donate blood)

Blood donation (from the Latin donare - “donate”) and (or) its components - voluntary donation of blood and (or) its components by donors, as well as activities aimed at organizing and ensuring the safety of the preparation of blood and its components. Blood taken from a donor (donated blood) is used for research and educational purposes; in the production of blood components, medicines and medical devices. The clinical use of donor blood and (or) its components is associated with transfusion (transfusion) of the recipient for therapeutic purposes and the creation of stocks of donated blood and (or) its components. Code ICD-10 Z52.0 Blood donor.

Content

List of donation sites

  1. Emergency Hospital - st. Bratislavskaya, 3. Department of transfusiology. Reception of donors daily, from 9:00 to 12:00.
  2. Regional Clinical Hospital - st. Baggoutovskaya, 1. Reception of donors daily, from 9:00 to 14:00.
  3. Central city blood transfusion center - st. Maxim Berlinsky, 12, with the Kiev Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion. Reception of donors daily, from 9:00 to 15:00.
  4. "Ohmadet" Oncohematological Center of the Ukrainian Children's Specialized Hospital of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine - st. Sholudenko, 10. Reception of donors - Mon, Tue, Wed, from 9:00 to 14:00.
  5. National Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery them. Nikolay Amosov, st. Amosov 6, (044) 275-40-44.
  6. Central Clinical Hospital - st. Shelkovichnaya, 39/1
  7. City Hospital number 2, st. Krakowska, 13
  8. City Hospital number 3, st. Petra Zaporozhtsa, 26
  9. City Hospital No. 10, 40th Anniversary of October Revolution, 59a
  10. City Hospital number 12, st. Podvysotskogo, 4a
  11. Center for bone marrow transplantation, Kiev, Victory Ave., 119/121
  12. National Cancer Institute, st. Lomonosova, 33/41, I floor, tel. (044) 259-01-94
  13. Scientific Center of Radiation Medicine, 119 Victory Ave., tel. (044) 450-81-92
  14. Road station blood transfusion Southwestern railway, st. N. Pymonenko, 8

Any practically healthy person between the ages of 18 and 60 can be a donor if he does not have contraindications.

The standard volume of one blood supply is 450 ml. + 40 ml. blood for analysis (about 10% of the total blood volume).

People weighing less than 50 kg or less than 150 cm tall are allowed to donate individually at the discretion of the transfusiologist.

What kind of medical examination do you need to pass in order to become a donor?

All necessary tests are usually done directly at blood transfusion stations. Some of the donated blood is collected for analysis. Determined: blood group and Rh factor; data of complete blood count (hemoglobin, leukocytes, erythrocytes, ESR, etc.); as well as markers of pathogens of blood-transmissible (blood-borne) infections: human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses; causative agent of syphilis.

If desired, in 1-2 days the donor can come with a passport to the Station and get the results of his analyzes. Results are reported only personally and confidentially. If signs of infection are found in the blood, only a donor and a doctor will know about it. And the doctor will advise where to go in order to find out the health situation.

In addition to a blood test, a potential donor undergoes a physical examination, during which the doctor measures pressure, temperature, pulse, asks about his health. Before the blood donation procedure, each potential donor fills in a special “donor questionnaire” in which he answers questions about his state of health and past diseases.

The final decision on admission to the blood supply is carried out by a transfusiologist, who assesses the donor's psycho-neurological status as well and can withdraw it if they suspect the use of drugs, alcohol, or an asocial lifestyle.

How often can you donate blood and its components?

There are different types of donations - whole blood donations and component donations. Men can donate whole blood no more than 5 times a year, women can take no more than 4 times a year. After donating blood, at least 60 days must pass before the donor can donate blood again. After donating blood, at least 30 days must pass before the donor can donate plasma.

After donating plasma, at least 14 days must pass before the donor can donate plasma or blood again.

How is blood donation different from plasma?

Upon delivery of the plasma, the blood immediately after its separation from the plasma part flows back into the donor's body. Plasma can be taken up to 6-12 times a year at intervals of at least 2 weeks, and whole blood can be taken no more than 3-5 times a year at intervals of 3 months.

After five regular blood donations, it is better to take a break for 3-4 months. Plasma recovers within a few days, blood - within a month.

The plasma removal process takes about 40 minutes, blood sampling takes about 10-15 minutes. However, the total time that the donor will need to spend in a medical institution in the first case will be about two hours, in the second case - about one and a half hours.

How long does it take to wait after a risky situation (when you can get infected with HIV or viral hepatitis) for the tests to be informative?

Not less than 6 months. In no case do you have to hide the existing risky situations from the doctor at the donor station. Hidden information may be dangerous for the recipient.

Can a smoker be a donor?

Smoking is not a contraindication to donation. Experts recommend to refrain from smoking one hour before the blood donation procedure and not to smoke for two hours after donating.

What types of blood donations exist?

The most common method is the delivery of whole blood. It is taken from a vein on the arm on average 450 ml at a time and lasts 5-10 minutes.

You can donate not whole blood, but its components, for example, plasma - a procedure called plasmapheresis, or platelets - thrombocytepheresis.

During these procedures, only the component necessary for clinical use is selectively extracted from the blood of the donor, and all other components are returned to the bloodstream.

Thus, the dose of platelets can be obtained from 450 ml of whole donor blood, but most patients need several doses at once. Plateletpheresis allows you to increase the number of platelets from one donor. The volume taken up during the procedure includes about 200x109 cells dissolved in a small (150-200ml) amount of plasma. As a rule, the taking of platelets is carried out on special devices, requires some preparation of the donor and can last more than an hour

Plasmapheresis procedures are carried out much more often. There are two ways to carry them out: manual or else it is called “intermittent,” when a dose of blood is taken from a donor, immediately centrifuged, dividing into red blood cells and plasma. Erythrocytes are returned to the donor, and the plasma is processed in a special way for subsequent transfusion to recipients. With automatic plasmapheresis, the process takes place with the help of a special apparatus continuously. The whole procedure takes 30-40 minutes

In order not to harm the health of the donor, it is necessary to maintain the intervals between the blood donation procedures. Whole blood can be donated once every two months, but not more than 5 times a year. Plasma or platelets can be donated once every two weeks.

How much time must pass after drinking alcohol before donating blood?

Must pass at least 48 hours after taking alcohol.

What kind of medical examination do you need to pass in order to become a donor?

All necessary tests are usually done directly at blood transfusion stations. Some of the donated blood is collected for analysis. Determined: blood group and Rh factor; data of complete blood count (hemoglobin, white blood cells, red blood cells, ESR, etc.); as well as markers of pathogens of blood-transmissible (blood-borne) infections: human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses; causative agent of syphilis.

If desired, in 1-2 days, the donor can come with a passport to the Station and get the results of his analyzes. Results are reported only personally and confidentially. If signs of infection are found in the blood, only a donor and a doctor will know about it. And the doctor will advise where to go in order to find out the health situation.

In addition to a blood test, a potential donor undergoes a physical examination, during which the doctor measures pressure, temperature, pulse, asks about his health. Before the blood donation procedure, each potential donor fills in a special “donor questionnaire” in which he answers questions about his state of health and past diseases.

The final decision on admission to the blood supply is carried out by a transfusiologist, who assesses the donor's psycho-neurological status as well and can withdraw it if they suspect the use of drugs, alcohol, or an asocial lifestyle.

How to prepare for blood donation?

Blood delivery is carried out after a light breakfast (not fasting), preferably not to eat fat, fried and dairy the previous evening, sweet tea, crackers, cookies, fruit are recommended.

You must abstain from alcohol for 48 hours before blood donation, as well as from aspirin, analgin and drugs containing aspirin and analgesics 72 hours before the procedure, if possible to refrain from smoking an hour before the procedure, you should also sleep.

What should be done to restore the body after blood donation?

On the day of blood donation, heavy physical and sports loads and weight lifting are not recommended.

There are no restrictions on driving a car on the day of blood donation.

Within two days it is recommended to eat fully and regularly, drink at least 1-2 liters of fluid per day (alcohol is not recommended).

Next, keep a familiar lifestyle.

Vaccinations after blood donation can be done after 10 days. Full restoration of the blood occurs within 5-7 days. The recovery rate of different blood components is different. To restore the blood structure faster, it is recommended to drink more fluids - juices, tea. Proper nutrition is necessary: ​​a protein must always be present in the donor's diet, on which the level of hemoglobin in the blood depends. Foods that contain protein are meat, beets, buckwheat, lentils, beans, and all legumes, fish, etc.

Is it possible to donate blood on a day off?

Unfortunately, the majority of medical institutions that carry out blood sampling do not work on weekends. This is due to the fact that many specialists are involved in the process of blood sampling - it is necessary not just to take blood, to do a medical examination of donors, to check blood in the laboratory, to divide donated blood into components, to prepare it for further use.

Moscow blood transfusion stations operate on Saturday. (Depending on the region, the caller is provided with information about the schedule of work of the nearest stations).

How are the records donated blood donor and in general records of donors?

Accounting donated blood donor and donor records are kept in a medical institution where blood donation is carried out. When the donor of the reserve applies (the donor of the reserve is a donor with less than 3 blood donations per year) the “Donor reserve card” and the “Donor accounting card” are entered, in which the passport data are entered in accordance with the presented document, it also marks the number donated blood and its components.

Information about the donor is also entered into the electronic database. While electronic databases are maintained in each region independently and are not related to each other. In the future, they will all be merged into a single information network of Russian donors.

When the donor of the reserve applies for the fourth time in a year and if he wishes to donate blood regularly or its components in the future, he is transferred to the category of active donor with the “Medical card of an active donor”.

When registering, each donor is also given a “Donor Questionnaire”, filled in by him or with the help of a medical registrar.

Donors can be divided into several categories: active (personnel), having three or more blood donations (plasmodacs, cytodacs) per year; reserve donors with less than three blood donations (plasmagods, cytocals); donor relatives - persons who give blood for transfusion to relatives, friends, acquaintances.

Accounting forms are stored for 5 years, except for the “Donor registration card”, which is to be stored for 75 years. When a donor is removed from the register, the cause of the donor withdrawal is recorded in the Active Card of the Active Donor and in the Donor Record Card and the total amount of blood withdrawn or its components for the entire donation period is summarized.

What is a single dose of blood donation?

For modern medicine it is very important that as many people as possible with a body weight of at least 50 kg give blood with a full dose of 450 ml, and plasma 600 ml. Doctors have to transfuse blood in large doses to one patient, and the more blood is taken from a smaller number of donors, the more safe and effective is its action as a therapeutic agent. Donors are recommended blood donation of 450 ml and plasma plasma 600 ml at least twice a year.

In some cases, donor does not take whole blood but only some of its components. The common name for the procedures for taking components is “apheresis” (selective taking)

For example, during platelet apheresis, platelets are taken from a donor in a certain way, and the rest is returned.

Selective plasma capture is called “plasmapheresis”. The plasmapheresis procedure is performed by two methods: discrete and hardware. The duration of the procedure is on average 45 minutes. The maximum amount of plasma plasma does not exceed 600 ml. The interval between plasmapheresis is 14 days.

Who needs donated blood?

One and a half million Russians need blood transfusions annually. Every third inhabitant of the earth needs blood donors at least once in life. There are several categories of people who need donated blood.

There are people who need blood products in a line for life. These are, first of all, patients with hemophilia. If coagulation factors are sufficient and the patient receives adequate supportive therapy since childhood, then he is no different from an ordinary person and leads a life of an ordinary person. And without coagulation factors, the life of such patients is simply impossible.

Patients with oncological diseases need donated blood. Modern treatment of malignant tumors involves the killing of tumor cells. Along with tumor cells, normal blood formation also stops for a while. It is during this period that the patient needs maintenance therapy with components of donor blood, in particular, with platelets, for which there is no substitute, and in the near future is not even theoretically foreseen.

Donated blood is needed for patients with surgical pathology. These are people who need joint prosthetics, these are cardiac surgery patients. Surgical operations are associated with injury of blood vessels, tissues, with the need to restore the lost blood components.

Blood transfusions are often required by women during childbirth. Always a certain number of women in childbirth threatens blood loss, which also needs to be correctly compensated in order to save the life of the mother and child.

Also in the practice of pediatrics there is a hemolytic disease of the newborn, which can be diagnosed early and cured. For the period of such treatment, sick children need transfusions of a large number of different blood components.

Why don’t they give blood, but components?

The blood, which was previously considered a universal transfusion medium, gave way to individual components, since as a result of scientific research and clinical observations, it became obvious that the patient should not be transfused as such, but its individual components (platelets, erythrocyte mass, plasma).

Now, donors also take whole blood, which is further divided into components, and blood components themselves. Donation is divided into three types: blood donation, plasma donation (including immune), blood cell donation.

What is plasmapheresis?

Plasmapheresis is the selective removal of plasma from the body. Plasma is the liquid part of the blood. It contains a wide variety of substances: proteins (including coagulation factors), fats, carbohydrates, hormones, vitamins, salts, are needed to build body tissues and maintain their vital activity, as well as organic substances that regulate metabolism. Plasma is widely used for medicinal purposes in surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, oncology and other areas of medical practice.

Donor plasmapheresis is a method of obtaining from the donor plasma with the return of its own formed blood elements (erythrocytes, platelets, leukocytes).

Why do I need blood platelets?

Platelets are blood cells that stop bleeding. They need people with violations of the coagulation system.

Modern treatment of malignant tumors involves the killing of tumor cells. Along with tumor cells, normal blood formation also stops for a while. It is during this period that the patient needs maintenance therapy with components of donor blood, in particular, with platelets, which prevent the development of severe bleeding in patients.

One dose of platelets can be obtained from every 400 grams of donated blood, but most patients need to receive several doses of platelets at a time. During transfusion of blood products from different donors, the patient significantly increases the risk of transfusion reactions and complications. To reduce this risk and increase the number of platelets received from a single donor, a special procedure is provided — platelet transase — when the donor gives a number of platelets, which can be obtained from 3-4 doses of whole blood, for one donation. This procedure requires a little more involvement from the donor than simple blood donation. Because of the complexity of the procedure, platelet donors are often lacking.

You can take platelets every two weeks. These rates are associated with the rate of recovery of normal platelet count in the body.

What if I want to donate blood for a particular patient?

If you know the name and surname of the person for whom you want to donate blood, then it is enough to come to the medical facility where the patient is located and contact the donor center, which is usually located at the hospital.

You can also contact the blood transfusion station that serves this medical institution and report that you are going to donate blood for a particular patient, indicating his name and place of treatment

You must first agree on blood donation with the doctors who treat the patient for whom you want to donate blood.

How does blood donation affect health?

Blood donation on a regular basis is useful for the prevention of diseases of the cardiovascular system and, moreover, contributes to the self-renewal of the whole organism. Scientists from the University of Kuopio in Finland examined 5,000 men and found that heart attacks regularly give those who donate blood ten times less often. American researchers from the Kansas Medical Center confirmed that men who are permanent donors suffer 30% less heart attacks.

Moreover, blood donation and subsequent renewal have the most direct effect on improving the emotional state of a person. And in serious situations, for example, in case of an accident, the donor has a better chance of survival, since his body is more adapted to blood loss.

Is there any addiction to donation?

Addiction to donation does not occur: the production of blood components in the body of a healthy person is a complex self-regulating process, which is not affected by periodic blood donations. Simply bloodletting in scientifically based doses has some stimulating effect, so donors are mostly active and cheerful people. Surrounding it is sometimes regarded as "dependence" on blood supply.

Is it harmful to donate blood? Is the human body adapted for this?

Donating blood is not harmful. The human body is evolutionarily adapted to bloodletting: it is a universal reaction mechanism for injuries, and for women, in general, part of the functioning of the body.

What sensations can occur during blood donation? I want to help, but terribly afraid of all these procedures.

As for sensations, everything is very individual. Very slight sensations of pain are possible when a needle is inserted into a vein, but only for a couple of seconds. Sometimes during blood donation, more often in men, there are fainting. Women because of their physiology are better adapted to small blood loss. And fainting and talk more about psychological fear. Many donors do not observe any changes in their state of health and do not cancel the decline in normal activity on the day of donating blood — they go to work, etc. And many have euphoria from the consciousness of a good deed done.

What can and cannot be done after donating blood?

Immediately after donating blood, sit for 10-15 minutes. Refrain from smoking for an hour before and after blood donation, abstain from alcohol during the day. Do not remove the bandage for 3-4 hours, try not to wet it. Try not to be exposed to intense physical exertion during the day. Try to eat plenty and eat regularly for two days. Use an increased amount of fluids for two days. Do not plan blood donation immediately before exams, competitions, project delivery, during a particularly intensive period of work, etc.

I had bruises on my arm after giving blood. Is this a nurse's mistake? How to remove the bruise?

Hematomas can form if you have thin or deep veins, or if the ulnar fold was not tied tightly enough after bleeding. Such cases are possible and are not the result of inept actions of the health worker. In order to get rid of the hematoma as soon as possible, it is necessary to mix troxevasin and heparin ointment and apply a bandage with this mixture on the bruise.

Can I get a certificate of blood donation, giving time off, a few months after blood donation?

Can.

The management of our company treats donors badly; they are not allowed to conduct exit actions. Is there any way to influence the leadership?

In accordance with the “Law on the donation of blood and its components” (Article 6. Responsibilities of the administration of enterprises, institutions and organizations to promote the donation of blood and its components). Heads of enterprises, institutions, organizations, commanders (chiefs) of military units are obliged to:
assist state and municipal health organizations in attracting citizens to the ranks of donors;
unhindered release of the donor employee to the organization of health care on the day of the examination and delivery of blood and its components.

The law does not provide for liability for non-compliance with these standards, therefore, the administration of enterprises often not only does not assist, but also impedes donation. Try to seek assistance from the nearest blood transfusion station, they probably have experience.

Why is a donor prescribed in one region not allowed to donate in another region?

This is related to security issues. The prohibition not to take blood from arrivals from other regions is caused by a hypothetical assumption that in one region the donor is listed in the persons diverted from donation, and in another region there is no way to be convinced of the opposite. With the introduction of a unified information base, which will contain the All-Russian register of persons diverted from donation, this problem will be eliminated.

Are the military allowed to donate blood?

Usually, military units undergo blood donation during mobile donor actions on the territory of these units, in agreement with the commanders (chiefs) of military units.

In accordance with the “Law on the donation of blood and its components” (Article 6. Responsibilities of the administration of enterprises, institutions and organizations to promote the donation of blood and its components). Heads of enterprises, institutions, organizations, commanders (chiefs) of military units are obliged to:
assist state and municipal health organizations in attracting citizens to the ranks of donors;
unhindered release of the donor employee to the organization of health care on the day of the examination and delivery of blood and its components.

Is it possible to restore the donor card and all the blood donations, if it has long been lost? How?

You can try to recover the facts of blood donations by extracts from orders to provide days of rest for donated blood at the place of work. These orders must be kept in enterprises and archives for long enough.

ABSOLUTE CONTRAINDICATIONS

A person who has undergone the diseases listed below cannot be a donor regardless of the duration of the disease and the results of treatment:

Blood borne diseases (infectious)

  • AIDS, people with HIV infection, people at risk
  • syphilis (congenital or acquired)
  • viral hepatitis, test positive for hepatitis markers
  • tuberculosis (all forms)
  • brucellosis
  • typhus
  • tularemia
  • leprosy

Blood borne diseases (parasitic)

  • echinococcosis
  • toxoplasmosis
  • trinanosomiasis
  • filariasis
  • leishmaniasis

Malignant neoplasms

Blood diseases

Cardiovascular diseases

  • hypertension II-III century
  • cardiac ischemia
  • atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis
  • endoarteritis obliterans, nonspecific aortoarteritis
  • recurrent thrombophlebitis
  • endocarditis, myocarditis
  • heart defects

Respiratory diseases

  • bronchial asthma
  • bronchiectasis, emphysema, obstructive bronchitis
  • diffuse pulmonary fibrosis in decompensation stage

Diseases of the digestive organs

  • achilic gastritis
  • peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer

Diseases of the liver and biliary tract

  • chronic liver diseases, including toxic nature and unclear etiology
  • calculous cholecystitis
  • cirrhosis of the liver

Diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract

  • diffuse and focal kidney damage
  • urolithiasis disease

Diffuse connective tissue diseases

Radiation sickness

Diseases of the endocrine system (in case of pronounced impairment of function and metabolism)

Diseases of ENT organs

  • ozena
  • other acute and chronic severe inflammatory diseases

Eye diseases

  • residual effects of uveitis (iritis, iridocyclitis, chorioretinitis)
  • high myopia (6D and more)
  • trachoma

Skin diseases

  • psoriasis, erythroderma, eczema, lupus erythematosus, blistering dermatosis
  • fungal lesions (microsporia, trichophytosis, favus, athlete)
  • deep mycoses
  • pustular skin diseases (pyoderma, furunculosis, sycosis)

Osteomyelitis

Surgeries in the form of removal of an organ (stomach, kidney, spleen, etc.)

TEMPORARY CONTRAINDICATIONS

Risk factor Lead to:
Danger of contracting blood transmissible diseases:
blood transfusion, its components 6 months
operations, including abortion (need to provide information on the nature and date of the operation) from the day of operation 6 months
tattooing or acupuncture 1 year
stay abroad for more than two months 6 months
stay in countries endemic for malaria (Asia, Africa, South and Central America) for more than three months 3 years
contact with patients with hepatitis A 3 months
contact with patients with hepatitis B or C 1 year
Infectious diseases not listed in the Absolute Contraindications section:
malaria, in the absence of symptoms and negative immunological tests 3 years
typhoid fever after recovery and full clinical examination in the absence of pronounced functional disorders 1 year
sore throat, flu, ORVI - after recovery 1 month
other infectious diseases - after recovery 6 months
Other diseases:
acute or chronic inflammatory processes in the acute stage, regardless of their location 1 month
body temperature above 37.0 degrees C 1 month
vegetative dystonia 1 month
allergic diseases in the acute stage 2 months
Vaccinations:
vaccination with killed vaccines (hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, typhoid and paratyphoid fever, choller, influenza), toxoids 10 days
vaccination with live vaccines (brucellosis, plague, tularemia, BCG, smallpox, rubella, polio) 1 month
tetanus toxoid serum (in the absence of marked inflammation at the injection site) 1 month
Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Administration 1 year
rabies vaccine 1 year
Mantoux reaction (in the absence of pronounced inflammation at the injection site) 2 weeks
Medication:
antibiotics (after the course) 2 weeks
analgesics and salicylates 3 days
Other:
gestation period 1 year
lactation (after graduation) 3 months
menstruation (after graduation) 5 days
removal of a tooth 10 days
alcohol consumption 2 days