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Blood Donor Handbook (How to Donate Blood)

Blood Donor Handbook (How to Donate Blood)

Blood donation (from Lat. Donare - “give”) and (or) its components - voluntary donation of blood and (or) its components by donors, as well as activities aimed at organizing and ensuring the safety of blood procurement and its components. Blood taken from a donor (donated blood) is used for research and educational purposes; in the production of blood components, medicines and medical devices. The clinical use of donated blood and (or) its components is associated with transfusion (transfusion) of the recipient for medicinal purposes and the creation of stocks of donated blood and (or) its components. Code ICD-10 Z52.0 Blood donor.

Content

List of blood donation points

  1. Emergency Hospital - ul. Bratislava, 3. Department of Transfusiology. Reception of donors daily, from 9:00 to 12:00.
  2. Regional Clinical Hospital - ul. Baggoutovskaya, 1. Reception of donors daily, from 9:00 to 14:00.
  3. Central city blood transfusion point - st. Maxim Berlin, 12, at the Kiev Research Institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion. Reception of donors daily, from 9:00 to 15:00.
  4. "Ohmadet" Oncohematology Center of the Ukrainian Children's Specialized Hospital of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine - ul. Sholudenko, 10. Reception of donors - Mon, VT, SR, from 9:00 to 14:00.
  5. National Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery. Nikolay Amosov, st. Amosova 6, (044) 275-40-44.
  6. Central Clinical Hospital - ul. Mulberry, 39/1
  7. City Hospital No. 2, ul. Krakow, 13
  8. City Hospital No. 3, ul. Peter Zaporozhets, 26
  9. City Hospital No. 10, avenue of the 40th anniversary of October, 59a
  10. City Hospital No. 12, ul. Podvysotsky, 4a
  11. Bone marrow transplantation center, Kiev, Victory Ave., 119/121
  12. National Cancer Institute, ul. Lomonosov St., 33/41, 1st floor, tel. (044) 259-01-94
  13. Scientific Center of Radiation Medicine, Victory Ave., 119, tel. (044) 450-81-92
  14. Road station blood transfusion South-West railway, st. N. Pimonenko, 8

A donor can be any practically healthy person aged 18 to 60 years, if he has no contraindications.

The standard volume of one blood supply is 450 ml. + 40 ml. blood for analysis (about 10% of the total blood volume).

People with a body weight of less than 50 kg or growth of less than 150 cm are allowed to donate individually at the discretion of the transfusiologist.

What medical examination do I have to go through to become a donor?

All necessary tests are usually done directly at blood transfusion stations. A certain amount of blood donated by the donor is taken for analysis. The following are determined: blood group and Rh factor; general blood test data (hemoglobin, white blood cells, red blood cells, ESR, etc.); as well as markers of pathogens of blood-borne (blood-borne) infections: human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses; causative agent of syphilis.

If desired, after 1-2 days, the donor can come with a passport to the Station and get the results of his analyzes. Results are reported only personally and confidentially. If signs of infection are found in the blood, only the blood donor and the doctor will know about it. And the doctor will advise where you can go in order to find out the health situation.

In addition to a blood test, a potential donor undergoes a medical examination, during which the doctor measures pressure, temperature, pulse, asks about well-being. Before the blood supply procedure, each potential donor fills out a special “donor questionnaire”, in which he answers questions about his state of health and past illnesses.

The final decision on admission to the blood supply is made by the transfusiologist, who also evaluates the neuropsychiatric status of the donor and can take it away if there is a suspicion of using drugs, alcohol, or leading an asocial lifestyle.

How often can I donate blood and its components?

There are different types of donation - whole blood donation and component donation. Men can donate whole blood no more than 5 times a year, women - no more than 4 times a year. After blood donation, at least 60 days must pass before the donor can donate blood again. After blood donation, at least 30 days must pass before the donor can donate plasma.

After plasma donation, at least 14 days must pass before the donor can again donate plasma or blood.

How is blood donation different from plasma donation?

When a plasma is donated, after separation of a portion of the plasma from it, blood immediately flows back into the donor's body. Plasma can be donated up to 6-12 times a year at intervals of at least 2 weeks, and whole blood - no more than 3-5 times a year at intervals of 3 months.

After five regular bruises, it is best to take a break for 3-4 months. Plasma is restored within a few days, blood - within a month.

The process of plasma removal takes about 40 minutes, blood sampling - about 10-15 minutes. However, the total time that the donor will need to spend in a medical institution in the first case will be about two hours, in the second case, about one and a half hours.

How much time do you really need to wait after a risky situation (when you can get HIV or viral hepatitis) so that the tests are informative?

Not less than 6 months. In no case do you need to hide the existing risk situations from the doctor at the donor point. Concealed information can be dangerous for the recipient.

Can a smoker be a donor?

Smoking is not a contraindication to donation. Experts recommend abstaining from smoking one hour before the blood donation procedure and not smoking for two hours after the donation.

What types of blood donation exist?

The most common way is to donate whole blood. It is taken from a vein on the arm on average 450 ml at a time and lasts 5-10 minutes.

You can donate not whole blood, but its components, for example, plasma - a procedure called plasmapheresis, or platelets - thrombocytapheresis.

During these procedures, only the component necessary for clinical use is selectively extracted from the blood of the donor, and all other components return to the bloodstream.

So, a platelet dose can be obtained from 450 ml of whole donated blood, but most patients need several doses at once. Thrombocytapheresis allows you to increase the number of platelets from one donor. The volume taken during the procedure includes about 200x109 cells dissolved in a small (150-200 ml) amount of plasma. As a rule, platelet collection is carried out on special devices, requires a certain preparation of the donor and can last more than an hour

Plasmapheresis procedures are performed much more often. There are two ways of carrying them out: manual or it is also called “intermittent”, when a dose of blood is taken from a donor, it is immediately centrifuged, being divided into red blood cells and plasma. Red blood cells are returned to the donor, and plasma is specially processed for subsequent transfusion to recipients. With automatic plasmapheresis, the process occurs using a special apparatus continuously. The whole procedure takes 30-40 minutes

In order not to harm their health, the donor must maintain the intervals between blood donation procedures. Whole blood can be donated once every two months, but not more than 5 times a year. Plasma or platelets can be donated once every two weeks.

How much time should pass after drinking alcohol before giving blood?

At least 48 hours must pass after taking alcohol.

What medical examination do I have to go through to become a donor?

All necessary tests are usually done directly at blood transfusion stations. A certain amount of blood donated by the donor is taken for analysis. The following are determined: blood group and Rh factor; general blood test data (hemoglobin, white blood cells, red blood cells, ESR, etc.); as well as markers of pathogens of blood-borne (blood-borne) infections: human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses; causative agent of syphilis.

If desired, after 1-2 days, the donor can come to the Station with a passport and get the results of his analyzes. Results are reported only personally and confidentially. If signs of infection are found in the blood, only the blood donor and the doctor will know about it. And the doctor will advise where you can go in order to find out the health situation.

In addition to a blood test, a potential donor undergoes a medical examination, during which the doctor measures pressure, temperature, pulse, asks about well-being. Before the blood supply procedure, each potential donor fills out a special “donor questionnaire”, in which he answers questions about his state of health and past illnesses.

The final decision on admission to the blood supply is made by the transfusiologist, who also evaluates the neuropsychiatric status of the donor and can take it away if there is a suspicion of using drugs, alcohol, or leading an asocial lifestyle.

How to prepare for blood donation?

Blood supply is carried out after a light breakfast (not on an empty stomach), preferably on the previous evening do not eat fatty, fried and milk, sweet tea, crackers, cookies, fruits are recommended.

It is necessary to refrain from drinking alcohol 48 hours before blood donation, as well as from drinking aspirin, analgin and drugs containing aspirin and analgesics 72 hours before the procedure, if possible, to refrain from smoking one hour before the procedure, you must also get enough sleep.

What needs to be done to restore the body after blood donation?

On the day of the blood supply, heavy physical and sports loads, heavy lifting are not recommended.

There are no restrictions on driving on the day of the blood supply.

Within two days, it is recommended to eat fully and regularly, drink at least 1-2 liters of fluid per day (alcohol is not recommended).

Next, lead a familiar lifestyle.

Vaccinations after bleeding can be done after 10 days. Complete restoration of the blood composition occurs within 5-7 days. The recovery rate of different blood components is different. To restore blood composition faster, it is recommended to drink more fluids - juices, tea. Proper nutrition is needed: a protein should always be present in the donor's diet, which determines the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Products containing protein - meat, beets, buckwheat, lentils, beans and all legumes, fish, etc.

Can I donate blood on a day off?

Unfortunately, most medical facilities that take blood don’t work on weekends. This is due to the fact that a lot of specialists are involved in the blood sampling process - it is necessary not only to conduct a blood sampling, it is necessary to conduct a medical examination of donors, check the blood in the laboratory, divide the donated blood into components, and prepare it for further use.

Moscow blood transfusion stations work on Saturday. (Depending on the region of the caller, information is provided on the work schedule of the nearest stations).

How is blood donated and generally donor counted?

The blood donated by the donor is recorded and donor records are kept at the medical institution where the blood supply is carried out. When applying for a reserve donor (a reserve donor is a donor with less than 3 blood donations per year), a “Reserve Donor Card" and a "Donor Account Card" are issued, in which passport data is entered in accordance with the presented document, it also notes the quantity donated blood and its components.

Information about the donor is simultaneously entered into an electronic database. While electronic databases are maintained in each region independently and are not interconnected. In the future, they will all be integrated into a single information network of Russian donors.

When a donor of a reserve applies for the fourth time a year and wishes to donate blood or its components regularly regularly, it is transferred to the category of active donor with the registration of an “Active Donor Medical Record”.

Upon registration, each donor is also issued with a “Donor Application Form”, filled out by him or herself or with the help of a medical registrar.

Donors can be divided into several categories: active (personnel), having three or more blood donations (plasma donations, cytodruns) per year; reserve donors with less than three blood supply (plasma delivery, cytology); relatives donors - persons who give blood for transfusion to relatives, friends, acquaintances.

Registration forms are stored for 5 years, except for the "Donor's Registration Card", which must be stored for 75 years. When a donor is deregistered in the “Active Donor Medical Record” and in the “Donor's Record Card”, the reason for donor withdrawal is recorded and the total amount of the withdrawn blood or its components for the entire period of donation is summarized.

What is the single dose of blood donation?

For modern medicine, it is very important that as many people as possible with a body weight of at least 50 kg give a full dose of 450 ml of blood and 600 ml of plasma. Doctors have to transfuse large doses of blood to one patient, and the less blood donated, the more safe and effective its action as a therapeutic agent. Donors are recommended a blood supply of 450 ml and a plasma supply of 600 ml at least twice a year.

In some cases, donor don’t take whole blood, but only some of its components. The generic name for component capture procedures is “apheresis” (selective capture)

For example, with thrombocytapheresis, platelets are taken from a donor in a certain way, and the rest is returned.

Selective plasma acquisition is called "plasmapheresis." The plasmapheresis procedure is performed by two methods: discrete and hardware. The duration of the procedure is on average 45 minutes. The maximum volume of one plasma supply does not exceed 600 ml. The interval between plasmapheresis is 14 days.

Who needs blood donation?

One and a half million Russians need blood transfusions annually. Every third inhabitant of the earth needs blood donors at least once in his life. There are several categories of people who need donated blood.

There are people who need blood products in line for life. These are, first of all, patients with hemophilia. If there are enough coagulation factors, and the patient receives adequate supportive therapy since childhood, then he is no different from an ordinary person and leads the life of an ordinary person. And without coagulation factors, the life of such patients is simply impossible.

Cancer patients need donated blood. Modern treatment of malignant tumors involves the killing of tumor cells. Together with tumor cells, normal blood formation stops for some time. It was during this period that the patient needed supportive therapy with components of donated blood, in particular, platelets, which have no replacement, and in the near future are not even theoretically expected.

Donor blood is needed for patients with surgical pathology. These are people who need joint prosthetics, these are cardiosurgical patients. Surgical operations are associated with trauma of blood vessels, tissues, with the need to restore lost blood components.

Blood transfusions are often required for women during childbirth. Always a certain number of women in childbirth is threatened by blood loss, which also must be correctly compensated in order to save the life of the mother and child.

Also in the practice of pediatrics there is a hemolytic disease of the newborn, which can be diagnosed and treated early. For the period of such treatment, sick children need transfusions of a large number of different blood components.

Why aren't they giving blood now, but components?

Blood, which was previously considered a universal transfusion medium, gave way to separate components, since as a result of scientific research and clinical observations, it became clear that the patient should not be transfused as such, but its individual components (platelets, erythrocyte mass, plasma).

Now, whole blood is taken from donors, which is further divided into components, and directly the blood components. Donation is divided into three types: blood donation, plasma donation (including immune), blood cell donation.

What is plasmapheresis?

Plasmapheresis is the selective removal of plasma from the body. Plasma is the liquid part of the blood. It contains a wide variety of substances: proteins (including coagulation factors), fats, carbohydrates, hormones, vitamins, salts, are necessary for building body tissues and maintaining their vital functions, as well as organic substances that regulate metabolism. Plasma is widely used for therapeutic purposes in surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, oncology and other areas of medical practice.

Donor plasmapheresis is a method of obtaining plasma from a donor with the return of its own formed blood elements (red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells).

Why is blood donation needed for platelets?

Platelets are blood cells that stop bleeding. They are needed for people with coagulation disorders.

Modern treatment of malignant tumors involves the killing of tumor cells. Together with tumor cells, normal blood formation stops for some time. It was during this period that the patient needed supportive therapy with components of donated blood, in particular platelets, which prevent the development of severe bleeding in patients.

One dose of platelets can be obtained from every 400 grams of donated blood, but most patients need to transfuse several doses of platelets at a time. When transfusing blood products from different donors, the patient significantly increases the risk of transfusion reactions and complications. To reduce this risk and increase the number of platelets received from one donor, a special procedure is provided — thrombocytapheresis — when a donor donates as many platelets as possible from 3-4 doses of whole blood. This procedure requires a bit more involvement from the donor than a simple blood donation. Due to the complexity of the procedure, platelet donors are often in short supply.

Platelets can be taken once every two weeks. These norms are related to the rate of restoration of the normal platelet count in the body.

What if I want to donate blood for a specific patient?

If you know the name and surname of the person for whom you want to donate blood, then just go to the medical institution where the patient is located and contact the donor center, which is usually located at the hospital.

You can also contact the blood transfusion station, which serves this medical institution and inform that you are going to donate blood for a particular patient, indicating his name and place of treatment

You must first arrange for blood donation with doctors who treat the patient for whom you want to donate blood.

How is blood donation reflected in health?

Blood donation on a regular basis is useful for the prevention of diseases of the cardiovascular system and, in addition, contributes to the self-renewal of the whole organism. Scientists from the University of Kuopio in Finland examined 5,000 men and found that heart attacks regularly occur in blood donors dozens of times less often. American researchers from the Kansas Medical Center have confirmed that men who are regular donors are 30% less likely to have heart attacks.

Moreover: blood donation and subsequent renewal most directly affect the improvement of a person’s emotional state. And in serious situations, for example, in an accident, the donor is more likely to survive, as his body is more adapted to blood loss.

Is donation addictive?

Addiction to donation does not occur: the production of blood components in the body of a healthy person is a complex self-regulatory process that is not affected by periodic blood flows. Just bloodletting in scientifically sound doses has some stimulating effect, so donors are mostly active and cheerful people. For others, this is sometimes regarded as "dependence" on blood donations.

Is it harmful to donate blood? Is the human body fit for this?

Donating blood is not harmful. The human body is evolutionarily adapted to bloodletting: this is a universal reaction mechanism for injuries, and in women, in general, part of the functioning of the body.

What sensations can occur when giving blood? I want to help, but I'm terribly afraid of all these procedures.

As for the sensations, everything is very individual. There may be very slight sensations of pain when the needle is inserted into the vein, but only for a couple of seconds. Sometimes during a blood supply, more often in men, there are fainting. Women, by virtue of their physiology, are better adapted to minor blood loss. Moreover, fainting and talk more about psychological fear. Many donors do not observe any changes in their well-being and do not cancel the decrease in normal activity on the day of blood donation - go to work, etc. And many have euphoria from the consciousness of a good deed done.

What can and cannot be done after blood donation?

Immediately after blood donation, sit for 10-15 minutes. Refrain from smoking for an hour before and after the blood supply, refrain from drinking alcohol for a day. Do not remove the bandage for 3-4 hours, try not to wet it. Try not to be subjected to intense physical activity during the day. Try to eat plentifully and regularly for two days. Drink plenty of fluids for two days. Do not plan to give blood immediately before exams, competitions, passing the project, during a particularly intensive period of work, etc.

I got bruises on my arm after blood donation. Is this a nurse’s mistake? How to remove a bruise?

Hematomas can form if you have thin or deep veins, or if the elbow fold is not bandaged tight enough after a blood supply. Such cases are possible and are not the result of inept actions of the health worker. To get rid of the hematoma sooner, you need to mix troxevasin and heparin ointment and apply a bandage with this mixture to the bruise.

Is it possible to take a certificate of blood donation, giving a day off, a few months after blood donation?

Can.

The management of our company treats donors badly, they do not allow conducting field campaigns. Is there any way to influence the leadership?

In accordance with the "Law on the donation of blood and its components" (Article 6. Duties of the administration of enterprises, institutions and organizations to promote the donation of blood and its components). The heads of enterprises, institutions, organizations, commanders (chiefs) of military units must:
assist state and municipal health organizations in attracting citizens to the ranks of donors;
freely send a donor employee to a healthcare organization on the day of the examination and donation of blood and its components.

The law does not provide for liability for non-compliance with these standards, therefore the administration of enterprises often not only does not provide assistance, but also impedes donation. Try contacting your nearest blood transfusion station for assistance, they probably have experience.

Why is a donor registered in one region not allowed to donate in another region?

This is due to security issues. The prohibition on not taking blood from arrivals from other regions is caused by the hypothetical assumption that in one region the donor is listed in persons withdrawn from the donation, and in another region there is no way to verify the opposite. With the introduction of a unified information base, which will contain the all-Russian register of persons allotted from donation, this problem will be eliminated.

Are the military allowed to donate blood?

Usually, blood donations take place in military units during field donor actions in the territory of these units, as agreed with the commanders (chiefs) of military units.

In accordance with the "Law on the donation of blood and its components" (Article 6. Duties of the administration of enterprises, institutions and organizations to promote the donation of blood and its components). The heads of enterprises, institutions, organizations, commanders (chiefs) of military units must:
assist state and municipal health organizations in attracting citizens to the ranks of donors;
freely send a donor employee to a healthcare organization on the day of the examination and donation of blood and its components.

Is it possible to restore a donor card and all blood donors if it has been lost for a long time? How?

You can try to restore the facts of blood donations from extracts from orders on the provision of days of rest for donated blood at the place of work. These orders should be kept at enterprises and in archives for a long time.

ABSOLUTE CONTRAINDICATIONS

A person who has undergone the following diseases cannot be a donor, regardless of the duration of the disease and the results of treatment:

Blood-borne diseases (infectious)

  • AIDS, HIV carriers, people at risk
  • syphilis (congenital or acquired)
  • viral hepatitis, a positive test result for markers of hepatitis
  • tuberculosis (all forms)
  • brucellosis
  • typhus
  • tularemia
  • leprosy

Bloodborne diseases (parasitic)

  • echinococcosis
  • toxoplasmosis
  • trinanosomiasis
  • filariasis
  • leishmaniasis

Malignant neoplasms

Blood diseases

Cardiovascular diseases

  • hypertension II-III Art.
  • coronary heart disease
  • atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis
  • obliterating endoarteritis, nonspecific aortoarteritis
  • recurrent thrombophlebitis
  • endocarditis, myocarditis
  • heart defects

Respiratory diseases

  • bronchial asthma
  • bronchiectatic disease, pulmonary emphysema, obstructive bronchitis
  • diffuse pneumosclerosis in the stage of decompensation

Digestive system diseases

  • achilic gastritis
  • peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum

Diseases of the liver and biliary tract

  • chronic liver diseases, including toxic nature and unclear etiology
  • calculous cholecystitis
  • cirrhosis of the liver

Kidney and urinary tract diseases

  • diffuse and focal lesions of the kidneys
  • urolithiasis disease

Diffuse connective tissue diseases

Radiation sickness

Diseases of the endocrine system (in case of severe dysfunction and metabolism)

ENT diseases

  • ozena
  • other acute and chronic severe purulent-inflammatory diseases

Eye diseases

  • residual uveitis (iritis, iridocyclitis, chorioretinitis)
  • high myopia (6D or more)
  • trachoma

Skin diseases

  • psoriasis, erythroderma, eczema, lupus erythematosus, vesiculate dermatoses
  • fungal lesions (microsporia, trichophytosis, favus, epidermophytosis)
  • deep mycoses
  • pustular skin diseases (pyoderma, furunculosis, sycosis)

Osteomyelitis

Surgery in the form of removal of an organ (stomach, kidney, spleen, etc.)

TEMPORARY CONTRAINDICATIONS

Risk factor Retraction to:
Danger of infection with blood-borne diseases:
blood transfusion, its components 6 months
operations, including abortions (it is necessary to provide information on the nature and date of the operation) from the day of the operation 6 months
tattooing or acupuncture treatment 1 year
stay abroad for more than two months 6 months
stay in countries endemic for malaria (Asia, Africa, South and Central America) for more than three months 3 years
contact with hepatitis A patients 3 months
contact with patients with hepatitis B or C 1 year
Infectious diseases not listed in the section “Absolute contraindications”:
malaria, in the absence of symptoms and negative immunological tests 3 years
typhoid fever after recovery and a complete clinical examination in the absence of pronounced functional disorders 1 year
sore throat, flu, SARS - after recovery 1 month
other infectious diseases - after recovery 6 months
Other diseases:
acute or chronic inflammatory processes in the acute stage, regardless of their location 1 month
body temperature above 37.0 degrees C 1 month
vegetative-vascular dystonia 1 month
exacerbated allergic diseases 2 months
Vaccinations:
vaccination with killed vaccines (hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, typhoid and paratyphoid, holler, flu), toxoids 10 days
vaccination with live vaccines (brucellosis, plague, tularemia, BCG, smallpox, rubella, polio) 1 month
tetanus toxoid (in the absence of severe inflammation at the injection site) 1 month
administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin 1 year
rabies vaccine 1 year
Mantoux reaction (in the absence of severe inflammation at the injection site) 2 weeks
Taking medications:
antibiotics (after the end of the course) 2 weeks
analgesics and salicylates 3 days
Other:
pregnancy and childbirth 1 year
lactation (after graduation) 3 months
menstruation (after graduation) 5 days
removal of a tooth 10 days
alcohol consumption 2 days