Extraversion and Introversion / Extraverts and Introverts
Introversion - extraversion - a criterion of categorization, widespread in psychology, or an indicator of the measurement of personality traits. The two most notable are the two different notions of introversion - extroversion, owned by Karl Jung and Hans Eysenck. In psychiatry, K. Leongard's interpretation is also known.
The terms introversion and extraversion were first introduced by Jung, but their understanding and use in psychology is different from the original meaning. Rather focusing on interpersonal behavior, Jung, however, defined introversion as "a behavioral type characterized by the direction of life toward a subjective mental content" (focus on internal psychic activity); And extraversion as a "behavioral type, characterized by concentration of interests on external objects", (external world).
Extraversion is manifested in a friendly, talkative, energetic behavior, while introversion is manifested in a more closed and secluded behavior. Extraversion and introversion are usually considered as a single measurement space. Therefore, high indicators of one characteristic imply low performance of the other.
In fact, all complex psychological typologies and many psychological tests contain these characteristics in different forms. Examples include the Big Five model, Jung's analytical psychology, Hans Eysenck's three-factor personality theory, 16 personality factors of Raymond Cattell, the Minnesota multidimensional personality questionnaire, the Myers-Briggs typology.
The main criterion distinguishing extroverts and introverts, Carl Jung believed "the direction of the libido movement." According to Jung, extraversion manifests itself in the direction of the person's libido (vital energy) to the outside world, in that the extrovert prefers social and practical aspects of life, operations with real external objects, and the introvert prefers immersion in the world of imagination and reflection. The extrovert is aimed at wasting its own energy, moving it towards the surrounding objects, introvert - on accumulation, the movement of energy into the inner world. Introversion is one of the archetypal manifestations of the collective unconscious. Analyzing the differences in the concepts of the two other prominent representatives of dynamic psychology, Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, Jung believes that in essence the similar concepts of these authors differ because of the different veracity of their authors. If the first, according to Jung, is an introvert, which causes him to search for the mechanisms of the psyche in the depths of the inner world, the second, being an extrovert, considers the human psyche in a social context, considering the desire for social superiority as the basis of libido.
Hans Eysenck borrows from Jung the term "extraversion" when creating his dispositional model. Eysenck found that in various studies conducted by different research groups, personality parameters consistently vary in the degree of their orientation toward social relations as opposed to the orientation toward reflection, emotions, feelings. These concepts are poles of the superfactor - a complex of personality traits that correlate with each other, which is determined genetically. A typical extrovert by Eysenck is sociable, optimistic, impulsive, has a wide range of acquaintances and weak control over emotions and feelings. A typical introvert is calm, shy, distant from everyone except close people, plans his actions well in advance, loves order in everything and keeps his feelings under strict control. The Jungian term has come in handy in this situation. Moreover, it turned out that extraversion could be one of the basic personality traits, which Eysenck finally determined three.
In psychiatry, the interpretation of Leonhard is widespread, which borrowed the earliest interpretation of these concepts according to Jung and reinterpreted it: according to Leonhard, the extrovert is a person who is weak-willed, subject to influence from the outside, introvert-personality is strong-willed. At the same time, the typology of Leonhard is psychiatric, not psychological, and refers primarily to pathologies. If we are not talking about pathologies, then the terms of psychology, such as the locus of control (internal and external), externalism and internalism (RL Ackoff and Emery), etc., are close to the interpretation by Leonhard (but not Jung) of this term.
Subsequently, extraversion as a personality trait shows its worth, remaining in modern models such as the Big Five (John et al., 2008) or HEXACO (Ashton et al., 2004).
Extraverts and introverts have a difference in behavior. According to one study, extroverts tend to wear more decorative clothing, while introverts prefer practical, comfortable clothing. Extraverts often like more lively, traditional and energetic music than introverts. Features of character also affect how people organize their workspace. In general, extraverts decorate their offices more, keep their doors open, keep a number of spare chairs next to them and are more inclined to put plates with sweets on their desktop. They are characterized by attempts to invite other employees and encourage interaction. Introverts, on the contrary, decorate less and try to isolate their workspace from social interaction.
People are complex and unique, and since introversion-extraversion is a continuous measurement space, people can have a combination of both characteristics. A person who behaves like an introvert in one situation can behave like an extrovert to another, and people can study the behavior of the "opposite type" in some situations. Jung's theory is based on the fact that if the primary function of a person is extraversion, then the secondary is always introvert (and vice versa).
Since the frequency distribution in a normal population is centered on the middle section of the scale of introversion - extraversion, most people can be attributed to ambiverts. Ambivert is a person with average scores on this scale.
The terms "extraversion" and "introversion" became popular thanks to Carl Jung
Extraverts will be able to better understand and understand introverts - which will help in close communication, and in business, and in any joint activity. Introverts will be able to feel more confident, get rid of the sense of guilt imposed by society and, ultimately, improve their own lives - not seeking to expose it to alien stereotypes. Those who work with the team or team will be able to interact more effectively with "quiet" colleagues, It is better to use their strengths.
The terms "extraversion" and "introversion" became popular due to Karl Jung and his monumental work "Psychological Types", published in 1921.
According to Jung, extroverts are concentrated mainly on the world around them, they quickly join in the events occurring around, and if events and communication with people are not enough, they feel discomfort.
Introverts are focused mainly on the inner world, on thoughts, experiences, they tend to first comprehend the events, and to restore their strength they need to be alone.
Now about the extraversion-introversion, scientists do not have a single concept: not all adhere to Jung's theory. However, experts agree that the difference between these two types is in the degree of comfort for them of external influence.
Introverts and extroverts work differently
Extraverts often take up work at once, take quick (though not always right) decisions, multitask, are not afraid to take risks, are more focused on money and status.
Introverts are usually not included in the work at once, but they are more thorough, mono-tasked, perfectly able to concentrate on their work; Fame and fortune for them mean less.
Introverts and extroverts interact differently in society
Extroverts are usually self-confident, talkative (sometimes redundant), easily included in the dialogue, tend to dominate the company rather. They are not afraid of conflicts - but depressing loneliness.
Introverts, as a rule, quickly get tired of intensive communication, prefer to spend time with close friends and relatives. They are more listeners than speakers, and they express their thoughts in writing better than orally. They do not like conflicts and "easy", non-binding conversations, preferring a deep discussion of the topic.
"Introversion" is not a synonym for "shyness"
"Introversion" is not a synonym for "shyness," although one person can combine these two qualities. Shy can be an extrovert.
To determine whether you are an extrovert or an introvert, the author suggests a questionnaire - you must answer "right" or "wrong" for each of the items:
- I prefer to talk tete-a-tet interaction with groups of people
- I'm better able to express my thoughts in writing
- I find pleasure in solitude
- I think that wealth, celebrity and social status interests me less than my peers
- I do not like to talk about trifles, but I enjoy deep discussions about things interesting to me
- I am often told that I am a good listener
- I do not like to take too much risk
- I like to get into work, and I can not stand being interrupted
- I prefer to celebrate my birthday with a few close friends or relatives
- I am considered calm and gentle in communication with a person
- I do not like to discuss my affairs until their conclusion
- I do not like conflicts
- Best of all I manage to work alone
- Usually I ponder my words before speaking out
- I feel exhausted from a long stay at all kinds of events, even in a comfortable atmosphere
- I often do not answer calls, giving a chance to talk to an answering machine
- In the weekend I would prefer not to do anything, than spending time actively
- I do not like to do many tasks at the same time
- I can easily concentrate
- In my studies I prefer lectures to seminars
If you answered "most of the questions" to the majority of questions, you are an introvert, if "incorrect" is an extrovert. If the answers are "right" and "wrong" about equally - you are ambiver.
Many introverts are sensitive
Many introverts are sensitive - that is, they are highly sensitive to certain signals from the environment, both pleasant and unpleasant: such people get more pleasure from beautiful music and are much more vulnerable to injustice. They were often shy in childhood, and even in their adult state they are extremely confused by the situation where they are somehow evaluated.
Via "Introverts: How to use the features of your character" by Susan Kane & wiki