20 little-known facts about the human body
The human body still continues to reveal its mysteries.
Studying the work of his systems, every year scientists make hundreds of discoveries.
And often new facts refute the established ideas for centuries.
20. Silence of the heart
The heart of an ordinary adult person beats 72 times a minute, 100 thousand times a day, 36 million times a year and 2.5 billion times throughout life.
However, the heart beats rhythmically, which means that, apart from the beats, there are pauses in the cycle. So, if we add up all the pauses between heartbeats for one average human life, then it turns out that our heart is “silent” for about 20 years. It is also interesting that the heart stops sneezing.
19. Contrary to the laws of physics
It is known that fluid can flow from more pressure to less, but in our body this law is constantly violated. With simultaneous measurement of pressure in the aorta and the femoral artery, blood from the aorta, where there is less pressure, flows into the femoral artery, where pressure is higher.
18. Round heart
Recently, NASA conducted a study that gave very interesting results. It turned out that in a state of weightlessness, the heart not only weakens and decreases in volume, but also ... is rounded. During the experiment, NASA cardiologists studied the hearts of 12 astronauts who worked on the ISS.
Analysis of the images showed that in conditions of weightlessness, the heart is rounded by 9.4%. However, when returning to Earth, the heart within six months returns its usual form and resumes its “earthly” activity. To imagine a decrease in the activity of the heart, it suffices to say that a month and a half lying on the bed is equivalent to a weekly work in weightless conditions.
17. New skin: from three days to a month
Human skin is constantly updated. This process is called regeneration. It happens like this: new skin cells form in the germinal layer of the epidermis, for about 28-30 days they move to the surface and lose the cell nucleus. On the surface, they use the keratin contained in them to form the stratum corneum of the skin, which is gradually peeled off when washed or in contact with clothing.
Thus, the skin that we consider ours is constantly updated. In a month, the composition of human skin completely changes.
In newborns, the regeneration process, like many other processes (for example, metabolism), proceeds faster. "Change of skin" in infants takes three days - 72 hours.
16. Internal "brewery"
People with “wandering intestines” or the so-called “inner brewery” syndrome turn inside of themselves any food and drinks into alcohol. Therefore, they are always a little under the head. The cause of the disease is the inability of the stomach to break down sugar into carbohydrates - instead, it is engaged in fermentation.
In addition, the human body with wandering intestines is not able to process ethanol, resulting from the consumption of starch products. One bottle of beer is enough for such people to get 0.37 ppm. Fortunately, this is a very rare syndrome; there are only 11 cases in the world today.
15. Without hair
Spinal fracture can also lead to such an unexpected consequence, as the disappearance of body hair. This is a unique phenomenon in which scientists themselves have not yet understood very well. Hair on the human body grows actively when they make a request to the brain and receive feedback. If this connection is broken - and this is exactly what will happen if the spinal cord is seriously injured - the body hair will gradually begin to disappear.
14. Bird genetics
The fact that the “lark” - “lark” - is not his merit. As in the fact that the "owl" - "owl" - no guilt. Nature has “sharpened us” with such. And who was responsible for the chronotypes identified American researchers at the Medical Center of the North-West University of Chicago in collaboration with scientists from the Korean Institute of Science and Technology. Studying the fruit flies of the Drosophilia melanogaster, they discovered a circadian rhythm regulating gene. They called the “24 hour genome” and in 2010 published data in the journal Science, where they noted that the flies, in which he “did not work, did not show activity for a long time with the onset of dawn”.
If we draw a parallel with a man, then these Drosophila are typical “owls”, who are also unbearable to tear their heads off from their “mushy pillows”. And this same gene is responsible for the easy awakening of those lucky enough to be born as “larks”.
13. Moving facial expressions.
In 2011, scientists were able to discover that facial expression occurs long before its birth. Even during the prenatal period, the child is already able to move the facial muscles, smile, raise eyebrows or frown. The facial muscles make up 25% of the total number of muscles, while 17 muscles are involved in a smile, while anger or crying is 43.
One of the best ways to keep smooth skin on the face is kissing. When they work from 29 to 34 muscle groups.
12. Blood type as a factor of career and personal life.
In Japan, the “ketsu-eki-gata” teaching has been practiced since the 1930s, in which you can tell everyone about a person, knowing only his blood type. The Japanese are confident that the owners of the first blood group are sociable and energetic people, the owners of the second blood group are stress-resistant and patient, but stubborn. Creative and powerful people are usually III blood types. People with a rare IV group are balanced and natural-born leaders.
"Ketsu-eki-gata" is incredibly popular. A Japanese girl may ask at the first date not about who you are according to the sign of the zodiac, but about your blood type. The Japanese are guided by blood type and when they get married and when they get a job. HR departments are trying to form teams that are ideally matching “by blood”.
11. Testosterone and Longevity
The effect of testosterone on life expectancy has been repeatedly confirmed in various studies. One of these, conducted in 1969 among patients at a mental hospital in Kansas, showed that neutered men live 14 years longer. Interesting data on this issue was recently published by the Korean scientist Kyung-Chin Ming. He studied the book "Jan-Se-Ke-Bo", in which one can trace the genealogical information about 385 families of court eunuchs.
Comparing the life expectancy of 81 eunuchs with confirmed dates of life, Kyung-Ching Ming saw that the average life expectancy of eunuchs was 71 years. That is, their contemporaries eunuchs experienced an average of 17 years.
10. To sleep
Narcolepsy is a disease in which a person constantly wants to sleep. Also called paroxysms irresistible drowsiness and Gelino's disease. The disease occurs infrequently, about 20-40 people out of 100,000. Scientists associate narcolepsy with the syndrome of disintegration, the late start of sleep phases.
Patients suffering from narcolepsy, although they sleep a lot, do not get enough sleep, since skipping the slow sleep phase, they immediately find themselves in the fast sleep phase, the encephalogram curve of which resembles the wakeful person's encephalogram curve, it is almost impossible to sleep in this mode. We get enough sleep in the stage of deep delta sleep, patients with narcolepsy do not enter this phase.
The causes of narcolepsy are still unclear. Some doctors believe that the cause of the disease is the brain neurotransmitter hypocretin. It is he who regulates the phase of fast sleep and wakefulness. If the cells of this neurotransmitter are damaged, it leads to sleep disorders.
9. Natural alarm clock
Probably, each of us at least once woke up a few minutes before the alarm, especially when he knew in advance that it was necessary to wake up.
This is the merit of the so-called "natural alarm", namely, adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Scientists believe that it is somehow associated with minimizing stress for the body during the awakening. But what is most interesting, we can consciously control it. When studying the properties of adrenocorticotropic hormone, an experiment was conducted in which a number of subjects pre-programmed themselves to wake up at a certain time. More than 75% of the subjects actually woke up on their own when they needed to.
8. The wave of death
In 2009, in one of the American hospitals, the EEG was removed from nine dying people, which at that time could not be saved. The results were sensational - after the death of all subjects, the brain, which should have already been killed, literally exploded - there were incredibly powerful bursts of electrical impulses that were never observed in a living person. They occurred two to three minutes after the heart stopped and lasted about three minutes. Prior to this, similar experiments were carried out on rats, in which the same thing began a minute after death and lasted 10 seconds.
Scientists dubbed this phenomenon the “wave of death”. The scientific explanation of the "waves of death" has generated many ethical questions.
According to one of the experimenters, Dr. Lakhmir Chawl, such bursts of brain activity are explained by the fact that from a lack of oxygen, neurons lose electrical potential and are discharged, emitting impulses "avalanche". "Living" neurons are constantly under a small negative voltage - 70 minnvolts, which is retained, due to getting rid of positive ions that remain outside. After death, the balance is disturbed, and neurons quickly change polarity from “minus” to “plus”.
7. How men and women hear
Women better distinguish high-frequency sounds. A week-old girl can already pick out the sound of a mother's voice and hears when another baby cries. Boys are not needed.
Women are better at recognizing changes in tone than men, and therefore they know perfectly well when men lie.
Men, on the other hand, specialize in the sounds of wild nature (skill is not so necessary in the city) and perfectly “hear” the direction. If the first meowing of a kitten is heard by a woman, then it is the man who will indicate where to look for him.
6. Such a different sensitivity
The skin of a woman is 10 times more sensitive than the skin of a man. Studies by English scientists have shown that even the most sensitive man in this sense does not reach the most insensitive woman. But men's skin is thicker than women's skin and therefore men have less wrinkles. On the back of an adult male skin is four times thicker than on the stomach. And if a man is engaged in business, then the sensitivity of the skin drops even more, and he almost does not feel pain.
5. Electricity in us
People have great prospects as generators of electricity, it can be developed from virtually any of our actions. So, from one breath, you can get 1 W, and a quiet step is enough to power a 60 W light bulb, and it will be enough to charge the phone.
4. Lungs - body “stove”
One of the luminaries of the Soviet hardening systems was the Austrian-born Soviet scientist Karl Trincher. He spent five years in the Gulag, and knew about the cold without hearsay. Tricher once said that in laboratory animals, with a lack of oxygen, the temperature in the lungs rises. From here he made a brilliant conclusion: “The lungs are the only organ where the fats, reacting with oxygen, burn directly. Without any enzymes.
Today, even physiologists do not deny that the lungs are the "stove" that can warm the body in the cold. Rather, do not warm up, but keep warm, resist the pathogenic dominant of the cold. Therefore, in the cold, you first need to monitor your breathing, breathe slowly, evenly and deeply.
3. Color perception of floors
On the retina of the human eye are located almost seven million receptors, "cones", which are responsible for the perception of color. The X chromosome is responsible for their action. Women have two of them, and the color palette, which they perceive, is wider. In conversation, they operate with shades: "aqua", "sand", "light coffee". Men talk about the fundamental colors: red, white, blue.
2. Big skin
The skin is the largest organ of the human body. The average area of its surface is from 1.5 to 2 square meters. In different parts of the body, the skin has a different thickness and sensitivity. The thickest skin on the feet and palms, the thinnest skin on the eyelids. In this case, the sensitivity of the skin is not in direct proportion to the thickness. Thus, although the skin is rather thick on the fingers and palms, it can feel pressure of 20 milligrams, which corresponds to the average weight of a fly.
1. The heart of the laborer
Extremely high-speed processes occur every second in our body. When the body is at rest, the path of blood from the heart to the lungs and back takes only six seconds, from the heart to the brain and back - eight seconds, sixteen seconds will take its way from heart to fingertips and back.