20 little-known facts about the human body
The human body still continues to reveal its puzzles.
Studying the work of his systems, scientists make hundreds of discoveries every year.
And often new facts refute the beliefs that have been established for centuries.
20. Silence of the heart
The heart of an ordinary adult beats 72 times a minute, 100 thousand times a day, 36 million times a year and 2.5 billion times a lifetime.
However, the heart beats rhythmically, which means, in addition to beats, there are pauses in the cycle. So, if you add up all the pauses between the contractions of the heart in one average human life, it turns out that our heart is "silent" for about 20 years. It is also interesting that the heart stops when sneezing.
19. Contrary to the laws of physics
It is known that liquid can flow from greater pressure to less, but in our body this law is constantly violated. When measuring pressure in the aorta and the femoral artery simultaneously, blood from the aorta, where there is less pressure, flows into the femoral artery, where the pressure is higher.
18. Round heart
Recently, NASA conducted a study that yielded very interesting results. It turned out that in a state of weightlessness, the heart not only weakens and decreases in volume, but also ... is rounded. During the experiment, NASA cardiologists studied the hearts of 12 cosmonauts working on the ISS.
The analysis of the images showed that under zero gravity the heart is rounded by 9.4%. However, upon returning to Earth, the heart within six months returns to its usual form and resumes “earthly” activity. To imagine a decrease in the activity of the heart, it is enough to say that a month and a half of lying on a bed is equivalent to a week's work in zero gravity.
17. New skin: from three days to a month
Human skin is constantly updated. This process is called regeneration. This happens as follows: new skin cells form in the germinal layer of the epidermis, for about 28-30 days they move to the surface and at the same time lose their cell nucleus. On the surface, with the help of keratin contained in them, they form the stratum corneum of the skin, which gradually exfoliates when washing, or in contact with clothing.
Thus, the skin that we consider our own is constantly being updated. After a month, the composition of human skin is completely changing.
In newborns, the regeneration process, like many other processes (for example, metabolism), is faster. "Change of skin" in infants takes place in three days - 72 hours.
16. Internal "brewery"
People with a "wandering intestine" or the so-called syndrome of the "internal brewery" turn any food and drink into alcohol inside themselves. Therefore, they are always a little foolish. The cause of the disease is the inability of the stomach to break down sugar into carbohydrates - instead, it is involved in fermentation.
In addition, a human body with a fermenting intestine is not able to process ethanol resulting from the consumption of starch products. For such people, one bottle of beer is enough to gain 0.37 ppm. Fortunately, this is a very rare syndrome; only 11 cases are registered worldwide today.
A fracture of the spine can lead to such an unexpected consequence as the disappearance of body hair. This is a unique phenomenon in which scientists themselves are not very well understood. The hair on the human body actively grows when they make a request to the brain and receive feedback. If this connection is broken - and this is exactly what will happen if the spinal cord receives serious damage - the hair on the body gradually begins to disappear.
14. “Bird” genetics
The fact that the “Lark” - the “Lark” - is not his merit. As in the fact that the "owl" - "owl" - no fault. These are the “imprisoned” nature. And who is responsible for the chronotypes identified by American researchers at the Medical Center of Northwestern University of Chicago in collaboration with scientists from the Korean Institute of Science and Technology. Studying the fruit flies of Drosophilia melanogaster, they discovered a gene that regulates circadian rhythm. They called it the “24-hour gene” and in 2010 published data in the journal Science, where it was noted that the flies for which he "did not work did not show activity for a long time after dawn."
If you draw a parallel with a person, then these Drosophila are typical "owls", who also can not afford to tear their heads from their "fly pillows". And this same gene is also responsible for the easy awakening of those who are lucky to be born as "larks".
13. Moving facial expressions
In 2011, scientists were able to discover that facial expressions of a person arise long before his birth. Even during the prenatal period, the child is already able to move his facial muscles, smile, raise his eyebrows in surprise or frown. The facial muscles make up 25% of the total number of muscles, 17 muscle groups are involved during a smile, and 43 during anger or crying.
One of the best ways to maintain smooth skin on your face is to kiss. When they work from 29 to 34 muscle groups.
12. Blood type as a factor in career and personal life
In Japan, since the 1930s, the doctrine of “ketsu-eki-gata” has been practiced, in which one can tell everything about a person, knowing only his blood type. The Japanese are confident that the owners of the first blood group - sociable and energetic people, the owners of the second blood group - are stress-resistant and patient, but stubborn. Creative and powerful people are usually III blood groups. People with a rare IV group are balanced and natural leaders.
Ketsu-eki-gata is incredibly popular. A Japanese girl may ask at the first date not about who you are in the Zodiac sign, but what is your blood type. The Japanese are guided by the blood type when they get married and when they get a job. HR departments are trying to form ideally matching teams by blood.
11. Testosterone and longevity
The effect of testosterone on life expectancy has repeatedly found its confirmation in various studies. One of them, conducted in 1969 among patients in a psychiatric hospital in Kansas, showed that neutered men live 14 years longer. Interesting data on this issue was recently published by Korean scientist Kyung-Chin Ming. He studied the book "Yan-Se-Ke-Bo", in which you can trace the genealogical information about 385 families of court eunuchs.
Comparing the life expectancy of 81 eunuchs with confirmed dates of life, Kyun-Chin Ming saw that the average life expectancy of eunuchs was 71 years. That is, eunuchs experienced their contemporaries on average for 17 years.
10. Craving for sleep
Narcolepsy is a disease in which a person constantly wants to sleep. Also called paroxysms of irresistible drowsiness and Zhelino's disease. The disease occurs infrequently, in about 20–40 out of 100,000 people. Scientists associate narcolepsy with disintegration syndrome, an untimely onset of sleep phases.
Patients suffering from narcolepsy, although they sleep a lot, but do not get enough sleep, since skipping the slow sleep phase, they immediately find themselves in the REM sleep phase, the Encephalogram curve of which resembles the wake-up person's EEG curve, it is almost impossible to sleep in this mode. We get enough sleep in the stage of deep delta sleep, patients with narcolepsy do not fall into this phase.
The causes of narcolepsy are still unclear. Some doctors believe that the neurotransmitter brain hypocretin is the culprit. It is he who regulates the phase of REM sleep and wakefulness. If the cells of this neurotransmitter are damaged, this leads to sleep disorders.
9. Natural alarm
Probably, each of us at least once woke up a few minutes before the alarm, especially when he knew in advance that it was simply necessary to wake up.
This is the merit of the so-called "natural alarm", namely, adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Scientists believe that it is somehow associated with minimizing stress for the body during awakening. But, most interestingly, we can consciously control it. When studying the properties of adrenocorticotropic hormone, an experiment was conducted in which a number of subjects pre-programmed themselves to awaken at a certain time. More than 75% of the subjects really woke up on their own when they needed to.
8. The wave of death
In 2009, in one of the American hospitals, encephalograms were shot from nine dying people, who at that time could not be saved. The results were sensational - after the death of all subjects, the brain, which should have been euthanized, literally exploded - it generated incredibly powerful bursts of electrical impulses that were never observed in a living person. They occurred two to three minutes after cardiac arrest and lasted about three minutes. Prior to this, similar experiments were carried out on rats, in which the same thing began a minute after death and lasted 10 seconds.
A similar phenomenon, scientists dubbed the "wave of death." The scientific explanation for the “waves of death” has raised many ethical questions.
According to one of the experimenters, Dr. Luckmere Chawl, such bursts of brain activity are explained by the fact that from a lack of oxygen, neurons lose their electrical potential and are discharged, emitting impulses "like an avalanche." "Living" neurons are constantly under a small negative voltage - 70 min-volts, which is held, due to the disposal of positive ions that remain outside. After death, the balance is disturbed, and neurons quickly change polarity from “minus” to “plus”.
7. How men and women hear
Women better distinguish high-frequency sounds. A week-old girl can already make out the sound of a mother’s voice and hears when another baby cries. Boys do not need this.
Women recognize tones better than men and therefore know very well when men are lying.
Men, on the other hand, specialize in the sounds of wildlife (this skill is not so necessary in the city) and perfectly “hear” the direction. If a woman hears the first meow of a kitten, it is the man who will indicate where to look for him.
6. Such a different sensitivity
The skin of a woman is 10 times more sensitive than the skin of a man. Studies by British scientists have shown that even the most sensitive man in this sense does not reach the most insensitive woman. But men's skin is thicker than women's and therefore men have less wrinkles. On the back of an adult male, the skin is four times thicker than on the stomach. And if a man is busy with business, then the sensitivity of the skin drops even more, and he almost does not feel pain.
5. Electricity in us
People have great prospects as generators of electricity, it can be developed from almost any of our actions. So, from one breath you can get 1 W, and a quiet step is enough to power a 60 W bulb, and it will be enough to charge the phone.
4. Lungs - the “stove” of the body
One of the luminaries of Soviet hardening systems was a Soviet scientist of Austrian origin, Karl Trincher. He spent five years in the Gulag, and he knew firsthand about the cold. Tricher once noticed that in laboratory animals with a lack of oxygen, the temperature in the lungs rises. From here he made a brilliant conclusion: “The lungs are the only organ where fats, reacting with oxygen, burn directly. Without any enzymes. ”
Today, physiologists do not deny that the lungs are a “stove” that can warm the body in cold weather. Rather, not to warm, but to keep warm, resist the pathogenic dominant of cold. Therefore, in the cold, you must first monitor your breathing, breathe slowly, evenly and deeply.
3. Color perception of floors
Almost seven million cone receptors, which are responsible for color perception, are located on the retina of the human eye. The X chromosome is responsible for their action. Women have two of them, and the palette of colors that they perceive is wider. In conversation, they operate with shades: “aquamarine”, “sand”, “light coffee”. Men talk about the fundamental colors: red, white, blue.
2. Big skin
Skin is the largest organ in the human body. The average surface area is from 1.5 to 2 square meters. On different parts of the body, the skin has a different thickness and sensitivity. The thickest skin on the feet and hands, the thinnest - on the eyelids. In this case, the sensitivity of the skin is not directly dependent on the thickness. So, on the fingers and palms, although the skin is quite thick, it can feel pressure from 20 milligrams, which corresponds to the average weight of the fly.
1. Hardworking heart
Extremely high-speed processes occur in our body every second. When the body is at rest, the path of blood from the heart to the lungs and back takes only six seconds, from the heart to the brain and back - eight seconds, sixteen seconds it takes the path from the heart to the tips of the fingers and back.