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Swine flu | Swine flu (A / H1N1, A / H1N2, A / H3N1, A / H3N2 and A / H2N3)




  • Swine flu
  • Clinical signs of influenza type A / H1N1
  • How to prevent the spread of influenza in child care facilities?
  • What do parents need to know to prevent children from getting the flu?
  • What to do if a child has the flu?
  • Signs of illness in a child should make you immediately seek medical help?
  • Leaflet to prevent the spread of type A H1 N1 flu in closed institutions
  • Sanitary and hygiene requirements for rooms during the rise in the incidence of influenza
  • How to prevent infection with influenza A H1 N1?
  • Actions of personnel upon detection of a sick child.



  • Swine flu | Swine flu (A / H1N1, A / H1N2, A / H3N1, A / H3N2 and A / H2N3)

    "Swine" flu (English Swine flu) - the conditional name of the disease of people and animals caused by strains of the influenza virus. The name was widely circulated in the media in early 2009. Strains associated with outbreaks of the so-called. “Swine flu” was found among serotype C influenza viruses and serotype A subtypes (A / H1N1, A / H1N2, A / H3N1, A / H3N2 and A / H2N3). These strains are known collectively as the "swine flu virus." Swine flu is common among domestic pigs in the USA, Mexico, Canada, South America, Europe, Kenya, mainland China, Taiwan, Japan and other Asian countries. Moreover, the virus can circulate in the environment of people, birds and other species; this process is accompanied by its mutations.

    Symptoms - The main symptoms coincide with the usual flu symptoms - headache, fever, cough, vomiting, diarrhea, runny nose.

    Prevention - For the purpose of primary prevention of people at risk in the Russian Federation and abroad, accelerated development of a vaccine for the prevention of influenza is carried out on the basis of a specific strain of the pathogen. The WHO memo on highly pathogenic influenza indicates the need to exclude close contact with people who “seem unhealthy, have high body temperature and cough”. It is recommended that you wash your hands thoroughly and often enough with soap. "Stick to a healthy lifestyle, including a good night's sleep, eating healthy foods, and physical activity." With proper heat treatment, the virus dies.
    At the University of Southampton, the bactericidal role of copper and copper alloy surfaces against the A / H1N1 virus was established. So, if within 24 hours about 500,000 units of the virus remained on the stainless steel surface, then 75% of the total number of virus units were inactivated on the copper surface after 1 hour, and after 6 hours only 500 units remained active (0.075% of the initial amount ) In Germany and the UK, production of household and plumbing fixtures from bactericidal copper alloys has already begun.

    Treatment - A person can be vaccinated (by vaccination) and innate immunity.
    The treatment of diseases caused by most strains of "swine flu" is carried out using the drugs Amantadine, Zanamivir, Oseltamivir and Rimantadine, which, however, have limited effectiveness.
    Most known antiviral agents are ineffective in the disease caused by the mutated Mexican strain A / H1N1. At the moment, a full-fledged medicine against this A / H1N1 strain does not exist - existing drugs can only ease the course of the disease, especially in its early stages (in cases where the patient seeks medical care within 48 hours after the first symptoms of the disease appear).
    Do not use products containing aspirin, due to the risk of Reye's syndrome.

    H1N1 influenza epidemics
  • Pandemic in 1918 - The Spanish Woman
  • Flu outbreak in 1976
  • Flu outbreak in 1988
  • 2007 flu outbreak
  • 2009 A / H1N1 influenza pandemic


  • Prevention of influenza and other acute respiratory infections (ARI) - ARI is a large group of acute viral diseases that are characterized by airborne transmission and predominant lesions of the upper respiratory tract. Influenza is the most common acute respiratory viral disease, the peculiarity of which is the extremely rapid spread and severe intoxication. The mechanism of transmission of the influenza virus is airborne. Influenza can lead to severe complications from the pulmonary, cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine systems. Disease Prevention Preventive measures are aimed primarily at increasing the body's resistance to the action of influenza pathogens, as well as other acute respiratory infections and acute respiratory infections.

    Effective, especially in the period of increasing incidence, experts note the following methods of prevention:
    - Nutrition with the inclusion of vitamins in their natural form;
    - Quenching and frequent ventilation of the premises;
    - The use of general strengthening and tonic-immunomodulating drugs and drugs with targeted immunostimulating effects.

    There are highly effective recommendations of the general sanitary-hygienic direction, in particular: - Often wash hands with soap, especially after a visit;
    - Cover your nose and mouth with a handkerchief (or disposable wipes), especially when coughing and sneezing;
    - Widely use non-traditional (folk) medicine, homeopathic medicines, oxolinic ointment.

    What you need to pay attention to:
    - There are some features of the clinical course of influenza in different age groups. In young children, first of all, symptoms of neurotoxicosis (vomiting, convulsions) may appear even against the background of low-grade body temperature. In elderly people, against the background of acute respiratory viral infections, cardiovascular diseases worsen, chronic foci of infection are activated, which significantly affects the clinical manifestations of influenza.
    - Diseases mainly begin acutely, from manifestations of general intoxication (chills, fever, severe headache, eye pain). The patient is concerned about general weakness, aches in the lower back, sacrum, joints, muscle pain, sleep is disturbed. The patient’s face attracts attention: hyperemia, puffiness, sparkling eyes - in total it resembles the face of a tearful child. The incubation period for influenza ranges from several hours to 3 days.
    - Basically, on the second day of the disease, a dry cough appears, chest pain begins to bother. By 3-5 days, the cough becomes softer, a small amount of mucous sputum appears. Nasal breathing is impaired through edema of the mucous membrane.
    - Already in the first hours, body temperature can reach 39-40 ° C, stay at that level for 2-3 days. However, if further fever continues or its second wave develops (it lasts longer than 5-7 days), this indicates the development of bacterial complications.
    - Treatment of acute respiratory viral infections and influenza is a complex problem, so it should be determined by a doctor. No need to self-medicate, it is dangerous! With timely and proper treatment, the disease ends in complete recovery.






    A / H1N1 influenza leaflet



    A / H1N1 influenza leaflet

    Clinical signs of influenza type A / H1N1 :
    headache,
    muscle pain,
    sore throat,
    fever
    cough,
    runny nose, stuffy nose,
    in some cases, vomiting and diarrhea.

    How can I get the influenza A / H1N1 virus?
    From another sick person by airborne droplets, by airborne dust (virus particles are transferred through the air from a sick person to a healthy person during a conversation, coughing, sneezing), in close contact (being at a distance of about 2 meters)

    How long is a contagious type A / H1N1 flu patient?
    The infectious period (the period when the patient is dangerous to others) with type A / H1N1 flu can be within 7 days from the onset of the disease, but if the clinical symptoms of the disease persist, then until they disappear


    How to prevent infection with type A / H1N1 flu?

    - avoid contact with persons with manifestations of influenza infection;

    - restrict visits to crowded places;

    - often ventilate the room;

    - wash hands often with soap;

    - try not to touch the eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands;

    - Avoid hugs, kisses and handshakes;

    - cover your nose and mouth when sneezing or coughing with a disposable napkin, which must be discarded immediately after use;

    - if a person has flu symptoms, it is necessary to stay at least two meters from him


    How to prevent the spread of influenza in child care facilities?

    - during the epidemic rise in the incidence of influenza, new children are not accepted in preschool institutions;

    - excludes the transfer of children from group to group;

    - stop visiting outside the institution;

    - in preschool institutions, daily inspection of children upon their arrival in the morning is of great importance, and at the slightest sign of illness, children are not accepted into the team;

    - the room in which the children are located must be well ventilated, they must be ventilated several times a day;

    - wet cleaning is required at least twice a day;

    - it is necessary for children to observe personal hygiene rules (frequent hand washing during the day);

    - at the time of the epidemic (pandemic), staff of the institution should wear gauze et 'tongues;

    - Institutional staff should be vaccinated against seasonal or H1N1 flu (if a vaccine is available);

    - persons who have been in contact with a child who has been diagnosed with influenza A H1N1 should undergo chemoprophylaxis with oseltamivir

    - for the period of an epidemic (pandemic), children's institutions are closed.


    What do parents need to know to prevent children from getting the flu?

    - teach children to wash their hands often with soap for 20 seconds;

    - parents should also perform this procedure, which serves as a good example for children;

    - teach children to cough and sneeze in a napkin or hand;

    - parents should also perform this procedure, which serves as a good example for children;

    - teach children not to approach patients closer than one and a half to two meters;

    - sick children should stay at home (do not attend preschools and schools);

    - Refrain from children and parents from visiting crowded places.


    What to do if a child has the flu?

    - at the first signs of illness, the child must be put to bed and a doctor should be called;

    - leave a sick child at home, except when she needs urgent medical attention. Do not send your child to school or to a preschool;

    - Flu patients are dangerous to others and should be immediately isolated. Their unacceptable appearance in public transport, children's groups and other places of mass stay of people.

    - the patient must be placed in a separate room or fenced with a screen, to give him individual dishes, a towel, personal hygiene items;

    - to prevent contact of the patient with healthy family members, except for those who care for him;

    - the person who cares for the patient should wear a two-layer gauze bandage or a single mask, which must be changed every 4 hours. After each contact with the patient, wash your hands thoroughly with soap;

    - the mask should be either disposable, which after the change is thrown into the basket, or multiple, which after washing must be carefully ironed with a hot iron;

    - carry out the ventilation of the room several times a day;

    - daily do wet cleaning of the premises of the house;

    - the air in the premises must be of sufficient humidity;

    - have disposable nasal wipes and a basket for used wipes within the patient's reach;

    - create comfortable conditions for a sick child. Extremely important is rest, bed rest;

    - if the child has a fever, then she needs to be given antipyretic drugs (paracetamol or ibuprofen preparations), then call a doctor;

    - Before the doctor arrives, give the child to drink plenty of fluids (juice, water, fruit drinks, compote, etc.);

    - Do not self-medicate. Only a doctor prescribes appropriate medical treatment for a patient!


    What signs of illness in a child should make you immediately seek medical help?

    - accelerated or labored breathing

    - Cyanosis around the mouth, other integuments

    - The appearance on the child’s body of hemorrhages (even very small ones), nosebleeds

    - High body temperature

    - Refusal of the child to drink

    - Inability to wake a child or lack of her reaction to treatment

    - Excessive arousal of the child or the appearance of seizures

    - The appearance of vomiting, frequent loose stools

    - Complaints of a child with severe headache.

    - Lack of urination or tears during crying.


    Leaflet to prevent the spread of type A H1 N1 flu in closed institutions

    I. Organizational arrangements:

    - during the epidemic rise in the incidence of influenza, new children are not accepted into children's institutions;

    - excludes the transfer of children from group to group (from class to class;

    - access to the institution of unauthorized persons is terminated

    II. Sanitary requirements for premises during the rise in the incidence of influenza:

    - the premises in which the children are kept must be well ventilated,

    they must be aired several times during the day;

    - the air in the premises must be of sufficient humidity;

    - you need wet cleaning at least twice a day;

    - door handles, taps in washbasins, toilet surfaces should be treated with disinfectant solutions several times a day.

    III. How to prevent infection with influenza A H1 N1?

    - all staff of the institution should often wash their hands with soap;

    - for the period of the epidemic (pandemic), the staff of the institution should wear gauze dressings;

    - Outside of a children's institution, staff should avoid staying in crowded places, contact with people with flu;

    - older children need to be taught to wash their hands often with soap;

    - Older children must be taught to cough and sneeze in a napkin or hand. After that, be sure to throw the napkin into the basket, and wash your hands with soap.

    V. Actions of personnel upon detection of a sick child:

    - at the first signs of a child’s disease, it is necessary to isolate, and then immediately hospitalize;

    - before the child is hospitalized, avoid contact with her other children, staff, except for those who care;

    - a person who is caring for a sick child should wear a respirator, or a two-layer gauze bandage or a one-time mask. Masks need to be changed every 4 hours. The mask, respirator should fit snugly to the face. After each contact with the patient, changing the mask, wash your hands thoroughly with soap;

    - a sick child should have separate dishes, toys, a pot

    V. Actions of personnel in the outbreak after isolation of the patient:

    - after the hospitalization of the child, his dishes, toys, pot must be washed with detergents, disinfectants;

    - after hospitalization of the child, his bed linen should not be transferred in an armful, after contact with the patient’s linen, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.

    - not allow people with signs of flu to work;

    - Institutional staff should be vaccinated against seasonal or H1N1 flu (if a vaccine is available);

    - persons who have been in contact with a child who has been diagnosed with influenza A H1N1 should undergo chemoprophylaxis with oseltamivir