Foot and mouth disease
Viral infection with specific lesions of the mucous membranes of the mouth, lips, nose, skin, in the interdigital folds and at the nail bed. The amplifier is a filtered RNA containing a spherical virus. Well preserved in the environment. Foot and mouth disease sick articulate animals (large and small cattle, pigs, sheep and goats). In sick animals, the virus is secreted with saliva, milk, urine, manure. The susceptibility of man to the lizard is small. Ways to transfer contact and food. From person to person, the disease is not transmitted.
Symptoms and course:The incubation period is 5-10 days. The disease begins with chills, fever, headache, muscle aches, lower back, weakness, loss of appetite. After 2-3 days, dry mouth joins, photophobia, drooling, and painful urination are possible. On the reddened mucous membrane of the oral cavity, a large number of small vesicles the size of millet grain filled with muddy yellow liquid appear, after a day they spontaneously burst and form ulcers (aphids). After opening the aphthas, the temperature, as a rule, somewhat decreases. Speech and swallowing difficult, increased salivation (salivation). In the majority of patients, vesicles - vesicles can be located on the skin: in the region of terminal phalangalis and legs, in interdigital folds. Accompanied by a burning sensation, crawling, itching. In most cases, the nails then fall out. Aphthae on the mucous membrane of the mouth, lips, tongue disappear in 3-5 days and heal without leaving scars. New rashes are possible, delaying recovery for several months. In children, gastroenteritis is often observed.
Distinguish skin, mucous and skin-mucous forms of the disease. Frequently erased forms occurring in the form of stomatitis.
Complications: the accession of a secondary infection leads to pneumonia and sepsis.
Treatment:Hospitalization is obligatory for at least 14 days from the onset of the disease. Etiotropic therapy is not. Particular attention is paid to careful patient care, diet (liquid food, split meals). Local treatment: solutions - 3% hydrogen peroxide; 0.1% rivanol; 0.1% potassium permanganate; 2% boric acid, chamomile extract. Erosion extinguish 2-5% solution of silver nitrate. In severe cases, it is recommended the introduction of immune serum and the appointment of tetracycline or chloramphenicol.
Prevention:Veterinary supervision of animals and food products obtained from them, compliance with sanitary and hygienic standards by farm workers.