Infertility: causes and treatment
Experts believe that women have three main causes of infertility: problems with ovulation, changes in the fallopian tubes (obstruction) and endometriosis, a disease in which pieces of the endometrium lining the uterus separate and grow in the lower part of the abdominal cavity. Male infertility is caused mainly by changes in sperm or insufficient amount of semen.
Both men and women may have hereditary causes leading to infertility. Children of women taking the artificial hormone diethylstilbestrol, which is now banned, may have changes in the reproductive organs that affect fertility. In some cases (from 3 to 20 percent) the causes of infertility remain unidentified.
Most couples who want to recover from infertility are treated with traditional methods, conservative and surgical, ranging from simple research, the results of which help spouses choose the best time for conception, to surgical correction of deficiencies; Infertility can be eliminated by eliminating obstruction of the tubes, removal of myomas, treatment of endometriosis. If problems are associated with ovulation, drugs that stimulate ovulation may be prescribed, for example, clomifentientrate (clomid) and / or a potent hormonal agent pergonal. Hormone therapy is also used for endometriosis and, in some cases, male infertility. Other methods include:
Artificial insemination with sperm taken from the husband (if his sperm is suitable for fertilization), or donor sperm (if the husband's sperm does not contain or contains few live spermatozoa).
In vitro fertilization, when the eggs are surgically removed from a woman's ovaries and transferred to a Petri dish, where they are fertilized with sperm. Fertilized eggs are then placed in the uterus of a woman.
Gamete transplantation into tubes, when surgically extracted eggs from a woman are mixed with sperm and placed in a fallopian tube, where fertilization takes place.
Zygote transplantation when a woman’s extracted eggs are fertilized and the embryos are placed in the fallopian tubes, through which they move into the uterus.