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Alzheimer's disease

- one of the varieties of pre-dementia, resulting from atrophy mainly in the temporal and parietal lobes of the brain. The disease begins on average at age 55, is much more common than Peak's disease. Women get sick 3-5 times more often than men. The disease begins with increasing memory impairment. However, patients notice these violations and the associated decrease in intellectual capabilities and try to hide it from others in every possible way. With an increase in memory impairment, a feeling of confusion, misunderstanding, and perplexity appears, which in some cases forces them to see a doctor. Gradually, patients cease to navigate in place and time, accumulated knowledge, experience, and skills fall out of memory. The process of falling from the present to the past, i.e. first events closest in time are forgotten, and then more distant ones. At first, the memory of abstract concepts suffers - names, dates, terms, names. Further, memory impairments join, in connection with which patients begin to confuse the chronological sequence of events both in general and in their personal lives. Patients cannot tell where they are, their home address (they can also give the address of the house where they lived in their youth). Leaving home, they do not find the road back. Distinguished recognition of shape, color, faces, spatial location.
People from the inner circle begin to be called by strangers, for example, representatives of the young generation - by the names of their brothers and sisters, then - by the names of long-dead relatives and acquaintances. Ultimately, patients cease to recognize their own appearance: looking at themselves in the mirror, they may ask - "what is this old woman?" A disorientation of orientation in space is reflected in the disorder and asymmetry of the handwriting: letters accumulate in the center or in the corners of the page, usually written vertically. Closely related to this are speech disorders, depletion of the vocabulary, lack of understanding of what is heard, read or written by one’s own hand. Therefore, writing more and more represents a set of irregular circles, curves, and then straight lines. Speech is becoming increasingly incomprehensible, consisting of separate parts of words and syllables.
Patients gradually lose all the skills and habitual actions they have acquired over their lives: they cannot dress, cook, do some basic work, for example, sew a button, and ultimately, perform even one purposeful action. The mood is unstable: apathy is interspersed with gaiety, excitement, continuous and incomprehensible speech. In the final stage of the disease, gait disturbances, convulsive seizures, reflex movements of the lips, tongue (sucking, smacking, chewing) can be observed. The outcome of the disease is unfavorable: a state of complete insanity. Death occurs either during a seizure or in connection with an attached infection.