- a pathological condition with unreasonably increased attention to one’s health and belief in the presence of a serious incurable disease. This form of the disease can arise from other forms of neurosis, for example, phobic neurosis, or arise independently in certain traumatic situations. For example, during the funeral of a relative who died from myocardial infarction, an unpleasant sensation occurred in the heart. Fixed on this. Repeated "pains" in the heart became the reason for the appearance of thoughts about heart disease, which, in turn, was the reason for going to the doctor. Such imaginary diseases and sensations are usually not objectively confirmed, which creates the basis for subsequent visits to the doctor and examinations. In such patients, certain functional somatic disorders are sometimes detected, however, they do not correspond to the severity of an imaginary disease. Thoughts about a serious incurable disease become dominant, overvalued, and going to hospitals and visiting doctors is the way these patients live.
In the early stages of the disease with appropriate treatment, hypochondriacal symptoms may weaken or even disappear altogether. In more advanced cases, hypochondriacal personality development is formed, which is difficult to treat.
Treatment should be comprehensive and individually oriented. It is necessary to analyze the traumatic situation and, if possible, relieve the patient from staying in it. Various methods of psychotherapy are of great importance in the treatment of neurosis: explanatory, aimed both at explaining the essence of the disease and methods of dealing with it; hypnosis (used for obsessive fears, fears, etc.), autogenic training, useful for copious vegetative manifestations, anxiety. Psychoanalytic therapy for opening intrapersonal conflicts and identifying complexes repressed in the subconscious (for example, with hysteria, phobic neurosis) is gaining increasing importance.
General strengthening therapy includes the appointment of vitamins, nootropics, physiotherapy, acupuncture. Of the psychotropic drugs, tranquilizers are most often used, including those with pronounced sleeping pills (for sleep disorders). To a lesser extent, small doses of antidepressants (azafen, pyrazidol, incazan), "weak" antipsychotics (frenolone, sonapax, meleryl) are used. The choice of adequate therapy is carried out depending on the nature of the neurosis and taking into account the characteristic features. When conducting psychotherapy, it is necessary to take into account the real capabilities of patients and the presence of appropriate social conditions. The formation of new interests and values should not run counter to the basic life attitudes of the patient.