- A pathological condition with unreasonably increased attention to one's health and the conviction that there is a serious incurable disease. This form of the disease can stem from other forms of neurosis, for example, phobic neurosis, or it can occur independently in very traumatic situations of a certain nature. For example, during the funeral of a relative who died of myocardial infarction, there was an unpleasant feeling in the heart. Locked on this. Repeated "pains" in the heart became the reason for the emergence of thoughts about heart disease, which, in turn, was the reason for seeking medical attention. Objective confirmation of such imaginary diseases and sensations are usually not found, which creates a basis for subsequent visits to the doctor and examinations. In such patients, certain functional somatic disorders are sometimes detected, however, they do not correspond to the severity of the imaginary disease. Thoughts of a serious incurable disease acquire a dominant, overvalued character, and going to hospitals and visiting doctors is a way of existence of such patients.
In the early stages of the disease with appropriate treatment, hypochondria symptoms may subside or even disappear altogether. In more advanced cases, a hypochondriac personality development is formed, which is difficult to treat.
Treatment should be comprehensive and individually oriented. It is necessary to analyze the traumatic situation and, if possible, save the patient from being in it. In the treatment of neurosis, various methods of psychotherapy are of great importance: explanatory, aimed both at explaining the essence of the disease and how to combat it; hypnosis (used for obsessive fears, fears, etc.), autogenic training, useful for abundant vegetative manifestations, anxiety. Psychoanalytic therapy in revealing intrapersonal conflicts and identifying complexes pushed into the subconscious (for example, in hysteria, phobic neurosis) is becoming increasingly important.
Restorative therapy includes the appointment of vitamins, nootropics, physiotherapy, acupuncture. Of the psychotropic drugs, tranquilizers are most often used, including those with pronounced hypnotic effects (for sleep disorders). To a lesser extent, small doses of antidepressants (azafen, pyrazidol, Inkazan), "weak" neuroleptics (frenolone, sonapax, melleryl) are used. The choice of adequate therapy is carried out depending on the nature of the neurosis and taking into account the characterological features. When conducting psychotherapy, it is necessary to take into account the real capabilities of patients and the presence of appropriate social conditions. The formation of new interests and values should not go against the basic life attitudes of the patient.