All modern medicines are grouped according to the following principles:
1. Therapeutic use. For example, drugs for the treatment of tumors, lowering blood pressure, antimicrobial.
2. Pharmacological action, ie the effect caused (vasodilators - dilating blood vessels, antispasmodics - eliminating vasospasm, analgesics - reducing pain irritation).
3. The chemical structure. Groups of drugs similar in structure. These are all salicylates derived from acetylsalicylic acid - aspirin, salicylamide, methyl salicylate, etc.
4. The nosological principle. A number of different drugs used to treat a strictly defined disease (for example, drugs for the treatment of myocardial infarction, bronchial asthma, etc.).
The classification of medicines proposed by the academician of the MD is accepted. Mashkovsky.
1. Medicines that act mainly on the central nervous system: anesthetics, sleeping pills, psychotropic drugs (tranquilizers, antipsychotics, sedatives, antidepressants, stimulants); anticonvulsants (antiepileptic drugs); drugs for the treatment of parkinsonism, analgesics, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory drugs, antitussives.
2. Medicines with action in the area of the end of efferent (centrifugal) nerves: anticholinergics, ganglion blocking, curariform and others.
3. Medicines that act mainly on sensitive nerve endings, including the mucous membrane and skin: local anesthetics, enveloping and adsorbing agents, astringents, emetics, expectorants and laxatives.
4. Medicines acting on the cardiovascular system.
5. Medicines that enhance the excretory function of the kidneys.
6. Cholagogue medicines.
7. Drugs affecting the uterine musculature.
8. Means that affect the metabolism: hormones, vitamins and their analogues, enzymes, histamine and antihistamines, biogenic, etc.
9. Antimicrobials: antibiotics, sulfonamides, nitrofuran derivatives, anti-TB drugs, antisyphilitic, antiviral drugs, etc., antiseptics (a group of halogens, oxidizing agents, acids and alkalis, alcohols, phenols, dyes, tar, tar, etc.).
10. Preparations for the treatment of malignant neoplasms.
11. Diagnostic tools.
12. Other drugs of various pharmacological groups.