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Contraceptive implanted under the skin

Levonorgestrel implantation is the first in many years a completely new method of protection proposed in the United States. Better known as Norplant, a contraceptive consists of six small capsules containing progestin, the same synthetic hormone that is used to suppress ovulation in oral contraceptives. Implanted under the skin of the arm, these capsules gradually release progestin, preventing pregnancy for about five years. After removing the capsules, fertility is restored.
Before the Food and Drug Administration authorized the use of an implant in 1990, the norplant was tested on more than 50,000 women in different countries of the world and showed high efficiency. Statistically, your chance of getting pregnant while the implant is wired is about 1 percent, which makes it as effective as oral contraceptives.
The biggest disadvantage of the implant, apparently, is that it violates the regularity of menstruation. In most women, menstruation or stop, or become abundant, or on the clothes appear bloody discharge. Some of these phenomena disappear after the first year; In general, 94 percent of women said that they would like to use this method in the future, despite the fact that 95 percent had side effects. In addition to disrupting the regularity of menstruation, there were side effects such as headaches, acne, hair loss and weight gain. Another disadvantage was that the implant was less effective in women weighing more than 154 pounds at the time of implantation and for women who gained more weight later. Efficiency decreases with weight gain. In addition, this contraceptive is very expensive, at least $ 500.
Although there is little data on the health effects of progestin-only contraceptives, experts believe it is unlikely that the risk of cardiovascular diseases is increased, since the development of cardiovascular diseases is influenced by the hormone estrogen. As with oral contraceptives, you will be protected to some extent from inflammation of the organs in the pelvic region, benign breast tumors and ovarian cysts. The use of progestin is associated with an increase in blood pressure, which is a risk factor regarding the likelihood of an impact.


Perhaps most of all women are worried about whether there is a connection between oral contraceptives and breast cancer, this connection seems to be more and more confusing with each new study. According to one study, it turns out that yes, pregnancy-warning pills contribute to the development of breast cancer. The results of another, equally carefully executed study, suggest that there is no, birth control pills do not cause cancer.
What is the matter? An experiment on 10,000 women was conducted at the Atlanta Centers for Disease Control, which explained these seemingly contradictory results. The confusion is due to the fact that the use of oral contraceptives appears to increase the risk of getting breast cancer in women under the age of 35, but reduces the risk for women after forty-five years.
“One of the theories that can explain this strange connection between birth control pills and cancer in young women suggests that the hormones in the pills themselves do not cause cancer, but they accelerate the development of cancer that would otherwise be diagnosed later,” Forrest. According to another theory, women taking pills are more likely to be screened, so cancer is detected at an earlier stage. There is another theory that pills, like pregnancy, increase the risk of breast cancer on a short-term basis, but reduce it in the long term.