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It occurs as a result of a violation of the integrity of the vessel with injuries, purulent fusion, increased arterial, atmospheric pressure. Changes in the vitamin balance in the body, the effect of toxins can also lead to vascular permeability. A number of diseases cause bleeding due to changes in the chemical composition of blood: hemophilia, jaundice, scarlet fever, sepsis, scurvy, etc. The bleeding can be either internal - in one or another body cavity (pleural, abdominal, etc.); in tissue (hematoma); hidden - having no pronounced external manifestations is determined by special research methods. Hemorrhage is called diffuse soaking with blood of any tissue (subcutaneous tissue, brain tissue, etc.).
Taking into account the time allocated: a) primary bleeding, starting immediately after injury, injury; b) early secondary bleeding that occurs in the first hours and days after injury (before the infection develops in the wound). It is more common to push a blood clot through the bloodstream when the intravascular pressure rises or when a vessel spasm is removed; c) late secondary bleeding, which may begin at any time after the infection has developed in the wound. They are associated with purulent fusion of a blood clot in a damaged vessel or its walls and are dangerous: you must carefully monitor the patient with damaged large vessels, always have the harness at his bedside ready!
According to the severity and arising blood loss (acute anemia), four degrees of blood loss are distinguished. 1 degree - the patient's general condition is satisfactory, the pulse is somewhat quickened, sufficient filling, the arterial pressure (BP) is normal, the hemoglobin content is above 8 g%, the circulating blood volume deficit (BCC) is no more than 5%. Grade II - a state of moderate severity, pulse - frequent, blood pressure is reduced to 80 mm Hg. Art., the hemoglobin content is up to 8 g%, the BCC deficiency reaches 15%. Grade III - a severe condition, pulse - filamentous, blood pressure - up to 60 mm Hg. Art., hemoglobin content is up to 5 g%, BCC deficiency is 30%. IV degree - the state is bordered by agonal, pulse and blood pressure are not determined, the hemoglobin content is less than 5 grams, the BCC deficiency exceeds 30%.
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