Description of the medicine: Ketaminum
Ketaminum. 2 - (Methylamino) -2- (2-chlorophenyl) -cyclohexanone hydrochloride.
Synonyms: Calypso, Ketazest, Ketalar, Velonarcon, Ketanest, Kalipsol, Ketaject, Ketalar, Ketamine, Ketanest, Ketolar, Vetalar, Ketaset, Velonarcon.
White or almost white crystalline powder with a weak characteristic odor. Easily soluble in water and alcohol; The pH of aqueous solutions is 3.5 - 4.5.
It is a tool that, with intravenous and intramuscular injection, has a general anesthetic (narcotic) and analgesic effect.
The peculiarity of the narcotic effect of ketamine is a rapid and short-lived effect, while maintaining adequate adequate breathing at narcotic doses.
General anesthesia caused by ketamine is called dissociative, since the effect of the drug is mainly associated with a depressing effect on the associative zone and horseshoe formation of the thalamus.
In the body, ketamine is metabolized by demethylation. Most biotransformation products are released within 2 hours with urine, but a small amount of metabolites can remain in the body for several days. Cumulation with repeated administration of the drug is not noted.
The minimum effective dose of ketamine for intravenous administration is 0.5 mg per 1 kg of body weight, with consciousness turning off after 1 to 2 minutes and the effect lasts about 2 minutes, with a dose of 1 mg / kg, it lasts about 6 minutes, and at a dose of 2 mg / Kg - within 10 - 15 minutes.
With intramuscular injection, the effect is slower, but it is more prolonged (at a dose of 6-8 mg / kg, the effect develops after 6-8 minutes and lasts 30-40 minutes).
The analgesic effect of ketamine develops usually when injected into a vein for 10 minutes and lasts about 2 to 3 hours. With intramuscular injection, the effect is more prolonged. The drug more reduces the somatic, pain sensitivity and less - visceral pain sensitivity, which should be taken into account in cavitary operations.
Ketamine is used for mononarhosis and combined anesthesia, especially in patients with low blood pressure, or when it is necessary to maintain self-breathing, or to carry out ventilation with respiratory mixtures that do not contain nitrous oxide. It is indicated in emergency surgery and evacuation stages, in particular in patients with traumatic shock and blood loss (due to rapid introduction to anesthesia and absence of respiratory depression and pacemaking effect), various surgical operations (including cardiac surgery), combined intravenous anesthesia, As well as endoscopic procedures, cardiac catheterization, small surgical manipulations, dressings, including dental, ophthalmic and otorhinolaryngological practice.
There are data on the successful use of ketamine in obstetric practice in cesarean section.
Enter ketamine intravenously (struyno simultaneously or fractionally and drip) or intramuscularly.