Medication Description: Calcium Chloride (Calcii chloridum)
CALCIUM CHLORIDE (Calcii chloridum).
Synonyms: Calcium chloride, Calcium chloratum crystallisatum.
Colorless crystals, odorless, bitter-salty taste. Easily soluble in water (4: 1) (with a strong cooling solution). Very hygroscopic, it spreads in the air. It melts at + 34 ° С in its water of crystallization. Contains 27% calcium. Solutions (pH 5, 5 - 7, 0) are sterilized at a temperature of + 100 ° C for 30 minutes.
Calcium plays an important role in the vital functions of the body. Calcium ions are necessary for the implementation of the process of transmission of nerve impulses, reduction of skeletal and smooth muscles, muscle activity of the heart, formation of bone tissue, blood clotting, as well as for the normal activity of other organs and systems glands; Ergocalciferol, Oksidevit and other vitamins of group D; Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (disodium salt).
A reduced content of calcium in the blood plasma is observed in a number of pathological conditions. Severe hypocalcemia leads to the development of tetany.
Correction of hypocalcemia is carried out with the help of calcium preparations, as well as hormonal preparations (see Calcitonin, Parathyreoidin), ergocalciferol, etc.
Calcium chloride is used in various pathological conditions: a) with insufficient function of the parathyroid glands, accompanied by tetany or spasmophilia (see also Paratyreoidin, Ergocalciferol); b) with enhanced excretion of calcium from the body, which can occur with prolonged immobilization of patients; c) in case of allergic diseases (serum sickness, urticaria, angioedema, hay fever, etc.) and allergic complications associated with medication; the mechanism of the antiallergic action is unclear; however, it should be noted that intravenous administration of calcium salts causes excitation of the sympathetic nervous system and an increase in adrenaline secretion by the adrenal glands; d) as a means of reducing the permeability of blood vessels in hemorrhagic vasculitis, radiation sickness, inflammatory and exudative processes (pneumonia, pleurisy, adnexitis, endometritis, etc.); e) in case of skin diseases (itching, eczema, psoriasis, etc.); f) in case of parenchymal hepatitis, toxic liver damage, nephritis, eclampsia, hyperkalemic form of paroxysmal myoplegia.
It is also used as a hemostatic agent in pulmonary, gastrointestinal, nasal, uterine bleeding; in surgical practice, it is sometimes administered before surgery to increase blood clotting. However, there is no reliable data on the hemostatic effect of calcium salts introduced into the body from outside; Calcium ions are necessary for blood coagulation, but the amount of calcium usually contained in blood plasma exceeds the amount needed to convert prothrombin to thrombin.