Description of the medicine: Calcium chloride (Calcii chloridum)
CALCIUM CHLORIDE (Calcii chloridum).
Synonyms: Calcium chloride, Calcium chloratum crystallisatum.
Colorless crystals; odorless, bitter-salty taste. Easily soluble in water (4: 1) (with strong cooling of the solution). Very hygroscopic, spreads out in air. It melts at a temperature of + 34 ° C in its crystallization water. Contains 27% calcium. Solutions (pH 5, 5 - 7, 0) are sterilized at a temperature of + 100 ° C for 30 minutes.
Calcium plays an important role in the life of the body. Calcium ions are necessary for the implementation of the process of transmission of nerve impulses, reduction of skeletal and smooth muscles, activity of the heart muscle, bone formation, blood coagulation, as well as for normal activity of other organs and systems (see Calcium ion antagonists; Calcitonin; Parathyroidin and other parathyroid drugs glands; Ergocalciferol, Oxidevit and other vitamins of group D; Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt).
Reduced plasma calcium is observed in a number of pathological conditions. Severe hypocalcemia leads to the development of tetany.
Correction of hypocalcemia is carried out using calcium preparations, as well as hormonal drugs (see Calcitonin, Parathyroidin), ergocalciferol, etc.
Calcium chloride is used for various pathological conditions: a) with insufficient parathyroid function, accompanied by tetany or spasmophilia (see also Parathyroidin, Ergocalciferol); b) with increased excretion of calcium from the body, which can occur with prolonged immobilization of patients; c) for allergic diseases (serum sickness, urticaria, angioedema, hay fever, etc.) and allergic complications associated with medication; the mechanism of antiallergic action is unclear, however, it should be noted that intravenous administration of calcium salts causes excitation of the sympathetic nervous system and increased adrenaline excretion of adrenaline; d) as a means of reducing vascular permeability, with hemorrhagic vasculitis, radiation sickness, inflammatory and exudative processes (pneumonia, pleurisy, adnexitis, endometritis, etc.); e) for skin diseases (itching, eczema, psoriasis, etc.); e) with parenchymal hepatitis, toxic liver damage, nephritis, eclampsia, hyperkalemic form of paroxysmal myoplegia.
Also used as a hemostatic agent for pulmonary, gastrointestinal, nasal, uterine bleeding; in surgical practice, it is sometimes administered before surgery to increase blood coagulation. However, there are no reliable data on the hemostatic effect of calcium salts introduced into the body from the outside; calcium ions are necessary for blood coagulation, but the amount of calcium usually found in blood plasma exceeds the amount needed to convert prothrombin to thrombin.