Description of the medicine: Potassium chloride (Kalii chloridum)
POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (Kalii chloridum).
Synonyms: Potassium chloride, Kalium chloratum, Potassium Chloride.
Colorless crystals or odorless white crystalline powder; tastes salty. Soluble in water (1: 3), practically insoluble in alcohol.
Potassium is the main intracellular ion, just as sodium is the main extracellular ion. The interaction of these ions is important in maintaining the isotonicity of cells. The potassium content in human serum is about 5, 11 mmol / L. Potassium ions play a significant role in the regulation of body functions.
The heart muscle responds to an increase in potassium by a decrease in excitability and conductivity. Large doses inhibit the automatism and contractility of the myocardium. A 4-fold increase in the concentration of potassium in the blood (which is practically possible only with intravenous administration) leads to cardiac arrest. A decrease in serum potassium increases the risk of developing arrhythmias when using large doses of digitalis; an increase in potassium concentration reduces the risk of toxic effects of cardiac glycosides on the heart. Being an antagonist of cardiac glycosides in relation to the effect on the heart rhythm, potassium at the same time does not counteract their positive inotropic effect.
Potassium is involved in the process of conducting nerve impulses and transferring them to innervated organs. The introduction of potassium into the body is accompanied by an increase in the content of acetylcholine and excitation of the sympathetic nervous system; with intravenous administration, an increase in adrenaline excretion is noted.
Potassium is also needed for skeletal muscle contractions. It improves muscle contraction during muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis.
Recently, the ability of some drugs to influence the passage of potassium ions through potassium membrane channels and to change the intracellular content of these ions has been identified (see Antihypertensives, Minoxidil, Oral antidiabetic drugs).
Potassium salts are easily absorbed when taken orally and are excreted relatively quickly by the kidneys.
Like other potassium salts (see Potassium acetate), potassium chloride has a moderate diuretic effect.
Indications for the use of potassium chloride are hypokalemia (including those associated with the use of hydrochlorothiazide and other saluretics, with indomitable vomiting, profuse diarrhea, etc.), intoxication with digitalis preparations, arrhythmias of various origins (mainly associated with electrolyte disturbances and absolute or relative hypokalemia) , hypokalemic form of paroxysmal myoplegia [Potassium chloride is part of a number of drugs for rehydration therapy (see Solutions "Disol", ..., "Quartasol").