Medication Description: Iodine (Iodum)
It is obtained from seaweed ash and drilling oil waters. Serovocheternye with metallic gloss plate or intergrowth of crystals characteristic odor. Volatile at ordinary temperatures; when heated sublimates, forming a purple pair. Very slightly soluble in water (1: 5000), soluble in 10 parts of 95% alcohol, soluble in aqueous solutions of iodides (potassium and sodium). Incompatible with essential oils, ammonia solutions, white sedimentary mercury (an explosive mixture is formed).
There are 4 groups of iodine preparations: 1) containing elemental iodine (alcohol iodine solution, Lugol solution); 2) inorganic iodides (potassium and sodium iodide); 3) organic substances, cleaving elemental iodine (iodoform, iodinol, etc.); 4) iodine-containing organic substances, in the molecule of which iodine is firmly bound (radiopaque substances).
Preparations containing iodine have different properties. Elemental iodine has an antimicrobial effect, its solutions are widely used for treating wounds, preparing the operative field, etc .; when applied to the skin and mucous membranes, they are irritating and can cause reflex changes in the activity of the body.
Absorbing, iodine actively influences the metabolism, enhances the processes of dissimilation. Its influence on the function of the thyroid gland is especially pronounced, since it participates in the synthesis of thyroxin. The daily need of the body in iodine is 200 - 220 mg. When iodine deficiency occurs a violation of the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibition of thyroid function; introduction of iodine enhances the synthesis of thyroxin in these cases.
Iodine preparations (see. Potassium iodide) block the accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid gland and contribute to its removal from the body.
Small doses of iodine (Micro-tablet) have an inhibitory effect on the formation of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the anterior pituitary gland. This property is used in the treatment of patients with hyperfunction of the thyroid gland [Tablets "Microdiode with phenobarbital" are excluded from the nomenclature of drugs. Calcidiodin (saiodin) is also excluded.].
It has also been established that iodine affects lipid and protein metabolism. When using iodine preparations in patients with atherosclerosis, there is a tendency to a decrease in blood cholesterol and an increase in the lecithin-cholesterol ratio, there is also a slight decrease in the content of lipoproteins. Under the influence of iodine preparations, the blood lipoproteinase and fibrinolytic activity of the blood increases, the blood clotting decreases slightly.
The use of iodine preparations as expectorant and mucolytic agents is explained by the reflex increase of mucus secretion by the glands of the respiratory tract and the proteolytic effect.
Iodine is excreted mainly from the kidneys, partially from the gastrointestinal tract, sweat and milk glands.