Description of the medicine: Iodine (Iodum)
Obtained from the seaweed ash and oil drilling water. Gray-black plates with metallic luster or intergrowths of a characteristic odor crystal. Volatile at ordinary temperature; when heated, sublimes to form violet vapors. Very slightly soluble in water (1: 5000), soluble in 10 parts of 95% alcohol, soluble in aqueous solutions of iodides (potassium and sodium). Incompatible with essential oils, ammonia solutions, white sedimentary mercury (an explosive mixture forms).
There are 4 groups of iodine preparations: 1) containing elemental iodine (alcohol iodine solution, Lugol's solution); 2) inorganic iodides (potassium and sodium iodide); 3) organic substances that split off elementary iodine (iodoform, iodinol, etc.); 4) iodine-containing organic substances in the molecule of which iodine is firmly bound (radiopaque substances).
Preparations containing iodine have various properties. Elemental iodine has an antimicrobial effect; its solutions are widely used for treating wounds, preparing the surgical field, etc. when applied to the skin and mucous membranes, they are irritating and may cause reflex changes in the body.
Absorbed, iodine actively affects the metabolism, enhances the processes of dissimilation. Its effect on thyroid function is especially pronounced, since it is involved in the synthesis of thyroxine. The daily requirement of the body for iodine is 200 - 220 mg. With iodine deficiency, there is a violation of the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibition of thyroid function; the introduction of iodine enhances in these cases the synthesis of thyroxine.
Preparations of iodine (see. Potassium iodide) block the accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid gland and contribute to its removal from the body.
Small doses of iodine (Mikroyod tablets) have an inhibitory effect on the formation of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the anterior pituitary gland. This property is used in the treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism [Microiod tablets with phenobarbital are excluded from the range of drugs. Calciodine (sayodin) is also excluded.].
It has also been established that iodine affects lipid and protein metabolism. When using iodine preparations in patients with atherosclerosis, there is a tendency to lower blood cholesterol and an increase in the lecithin-cholesterol coefficient, there is also a slight decrease in the content of lipoproteins. Under the influence of iodine preparations, lipoproteinase and fibrinolytic blood activity increases, blood coagulation decreases slightly.
The reflex increase in mucus secretion by the glands of the respiratory tract and the proteolytic effect explains the use of iodine preparations as expectorant and mucolytic agents.
Iodine is released from the body mainly by the kidneys, partly by the gastrointestinal tract, sweat and mammary glands.