Description of the medicine: Levamisole (Levamisolum)
Levamisole (Levamisolum). (-) 2, 3, 5, 6-Tetrahydro-6-phenylimidazo [2, 1-b] thiazole hydrochloride.
White amorphous or crystalline powder. Easily soluble in water.
Synonyms: Adiafor, Ascaridil, Casydrol, Decaris, Ergamisol, Ketrax, Levasole, Levoripercol, Levotetramisol, Nilbutan, Sitrax, Tenisol, etc.
Initially, this drug was proposed as an anthelmintic, since it is very effective in controlling ascarids (see Anthelmintic). The therapeutic effect is also observed with necatorosis, strongyloidosis, partly with hookworm infection. It is prescribed for helminthiases once before bedtime: for adults, in a dose of 150 mg, for children, 2.5 mg per 1 kg of body weight. If necessary, repeat the treatment after 1 week. Dieting is not required.
The mechanism of anthelmintic action is based on the specific inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase, in connection with which the most important reaction for the recovery of fumarate for nematodes is blocked and the course of helminth bioenergetic processes is disrupted.
When studying the anthelmintic action of levamisole, it was found that it increases the general resistance of the body and can be used as a means for immunotherapy. Experiments on isolated cells and observation of healthy and sick people showed that the drug is able to restore the altered functions of T-lymphocytes and phagocytes and, due to its timomimetic effect, can regulate the cellular mechanisms of the immunological system. More detailed studies have demonstrated that levamisole, selectively stimulating the regulatory function of T-lymphocytes, can act as an immunomodulator that can enhance a weak response of cellular immunity, weaken a strong one and not act on a normal one.
In connection with these properties, levamisole has been proposed for the treatment of various diseases, in the pathogenesis of which they attach importance to immunogenesis disorders: primary and secondary immunodeficiency states, autoimmune diseases, chronic and recurrent infections, tumors, etc.
The most studied effect of levamisole in rheumatoid arthritis. The drug refers to basic funds, is effective for prolonged use; the effect develops slowly (starting from about the 3rd month). Prescribe the drug inside in a daily dose of 150 mg daily (sometimes give intermittent courses for 3 consecutive days a week).
The therapeutic effect was also observed in patients with chronic non-specific lung diseases who received 150 mg of levamisole every other day or 100 mg per day. Pronounced clinical results and positive changes in immunological parameters were observed in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis who took levamisole 150 mg 3 times a week.