Medication Description: Unithiol (Unithiolum)
UNITIOL (Unithiolum). 2, 3-Dimercaptopropanesulfonate sodium.
Synonyms: Dimaval, Unitiol.
White or white with a slightly creamy tinge crystalline powder with a very light odor of mercaptan. Easily soluble in water, a little alcohol. The solution of the drug is a colorless or pinkish transparent liquid with a slight smell of mercaptan; pH 5% solution 3, 1 - 5, 5. Sterilized at a temperature of + 100 ° C for 30 minutes.
According to the structure and pharmacological properties, unitiol is close to dithioglycerol or 2, 3-dimercaptopropanol, produced abroad under the names: BAL (British Antivolucenitis, BAL), Antoxol, Dicaptol, Dimercaprol, Dimersarrolum, Dithioglycerus, Dimersarolum, Dithaprotol, Dimercaprol
Unithiol is used to treat acute and chronic poisoning with arsenic, mercury, chromium, bismuth and other metals related to the so-called thiol poisons, i.e. substances capable of interacting with the sulfhydryl (thiol) groups of enzyme proteins and inactivate them. Unithiol is less active in lead poisoning.
Unithiol, as well as BAL, contains two sulfhydryl groups. According to the mechanism of action, these drugs approach the complexones. Their active sulfhydryl groups react with thiol poisons in the blood and tissues and form nontoxic complexes with them, which are excreted in the urine. The binding of poisons leads to the restoration of the function of the enzyme systems of the body affected by poison.
The same mechanism of action served as the basis for the use of unithiol and BAL in the treatment of hepatocerebral dystrophy (Wilson's disease - Westfal - Konovalov), in the pathogenesis of which the disruption of copper metabolism in the body and the accumulation of metal in the subcortical nuclei play a certain role.
Unithiol is used for poisoning with cardiac glycosides, as well as in complex therapy for chronic alcoholism.
Compared with BAL, unitiol is less toxic; good solubility in water creates greater convenience for use and provides a more rapid absorption of the drug (BAL is slightly soluble in water and is used intramuscularly in the form of oil solutions).
For the treatment of acute and chronic poisoning with arsenic and mercury compounds, unithiol is administered intramuscularly or under the skin in the form of a 5% aqueous solution in an amount of 5 to 10 ml (based on 0.05 g of the drug or 1 ml of 5% solution per 10 kg of patient's body weight) . Treatment should begin as early as possible. In case of poisoning with arsenic compounds, injections are made on the first day every 6–8 hours (3–4 injections per day, depending on the patient’s condition), on the second day 2–3 injections every 8–12 hours, in subsequent 1–2 doses. injections per day. In case of poisoning with mercury compounds, injections are made according to the same scheme for 6-7 days. For children, the drug is prescribed in smaller doses according to age.
The duration of application depends on the rate of excretion of toxic compounds from the body. The treatment is carried out until the disappearance of signs of intoxication. In case of poisoning with mercury salts is administered for at least 6 days.