Description of the medicine: Unithiolum (Unithiolum)
UNITIOL (Unithiolum). 2, 3-Dimercaptopropanesulfonate sodium.
Synonyms: Dimaval, Unitiol.
Fine-crystalline white or white with a slightly creamy tint with a very slight smell of mercaptan. Easily soluble in water, little in alcohol. The solution of the drug is a colorless or pinkish clear liquid with a slight smell of mercaptan; pH of a 5% solution of 3, 1 - 5, 5. Sterilized at a temperature of + 100 ° C for 30 minutes
In structure and pharmacological properties, unitiol is close to dithioglycerol or 2, 3-dimercaptopropanol, manufactured abroad under the names: BAL (British Antiluizite, BAL), Antoxol, Dicaptol, Dimercaprol, Dimercarrolum, Dithioglycerin.
Unithiol is used to treat acute and chronic poisoning by compounds of arsenic, mercury, chromium, bismuth and other metals belonging to the so-called thiol poisons, i.e. substances that can interact with sulfhydryl (thiol) groups of enzyme proteins and inactivate them. Unithiol is less active in cases of lead poisoning.
Unithiol, like BAL, contains two sulfhydryl groups. According to the mechanism of action, these drugs approach the complexons. Their active sulfhydryl groups react with thiol poisons found in the blood and tissues and form non-toxic complexes with them, which are excreted in the urine. The binding of poisons leads to the restoration of the function of the enzyme systems of the body affected by poison.
The same mechanism of action served as the basis for the use of unitiol and BAL in the treatment of hepatocerebral dystrophy (Wilson-Westphal-Konovalov disease), in the pathogenesis of which a certain role is played by impaired copper metabolism in the body and metal accumulation in the subcortical nuclei.
Unithiol is used in cases of cardiac glycoside poisoning, as well as in complex therapy for chronic alcoholism.
Compared with BAL, unitiol is less toxic; good solubility in water creates great convenience for use and provides faster absorption of the drug (BAL is slightly soluble in water and is used intramuscularly in the form of oil solutions).
To treat acute and chronic poisoning with arsenic and mercury compounds, unitiol is administered intramuscularly or under the skin in the form of a 5% aqueous solution in an amount of 5-10 ml (based on 0.05 g of the drug or 1 ml of 5% solution per 10 kg of patient’s body weight) . Treatment should be started as soon as possible. In case of poisoning with arsenic compounds, injections are made on the first day every 6 to 8 hours (3 to 4 injections per day, depending on the patient’s condition), on the second day, 2 to 3 injections every 8 to 12 hours, and on the next, 1 to 2 injections per day. In case of poisoning with mercury compounds, injections are done according to the same scheme for 6-7 days. For children, the drug is prescribed in lower doses in accordance with age.
The duration of use depends on the rate of elimination of toxic compounds from the body. Treatment is carried out until the signs of intoxication disappear. In case of poisoning with salts of mercury is administered for at least 6 days.