Description of medicine: Lithium carbonate (Lithii carbonas)
LITHIUM CARBONATE (Lithii carbonas).
Synonyms: Kontemnol, Camcolit, Carbopax, Contemnol, Eskalith, Licarb, Lithane, Lithicarb, Lithium carbonicum, Lithizine, Lithobid, Lithomyl, Lithonate, Liticar, Lito, Neurolepsin, Plenur, Priadel, Teralithe, etc.
White light alkaline powder. It is soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol.
The mechanism of the psychotropic action of lithium preparations is undergoing intensive research. It has been established that lithium ions affect the transport of sodium ions in nerve and muscle cells, as a result of which lithium acts as an antagonist of sodium ions. Under the influence of lithium, intracellular deamination of norepinephrine increases and the amount of free norepinephrine acting on adrenoreceptors in the brain tissue decreases. In large doses, lithium lowers the content of serotonin in the brain. Lithium ions increase the sensitivity of hippocampal neurons and other areas of the brain to dopamine. Thus, lithium actively affects neurochemical processes in the brain, which may underlie its therapeutic activity in mental illness.
The most common lithium preparation is lithium carbonate.
Lithium salts are rapidly absorbed after oral administration; dissociate in the body. Lithium ions are found in different organs and tissues 2 to 4 hours after a single dose of the drug. Lithium is excreted from the body mainly through the kidneys, and excretion correlates with the concentration of lithium in the blood plasma, as well as with the level of sodium and potassium in the blood. With insufficient introduction of sodium chloride into the body, reabsorption of lithium in the renal tubules occurs. With increased introduction of sodium chloride into the body, lithium excretion increases. In the process of treatment with lithium preparations, it is therefore necessary to control the water-salt balance.
Lithium crosses the placenta; excreted in milk in nursing women.
The main indications for the use of lithium preparations are manic and hypomanic states of various genesis (especially with frequent attacks), prevention and treatment of affective psychoses (manic-depressive, schizoaffective, organic affective psychoses). There is evidence of the effectiveness of lithium not only in endogenous psychoses, but also in patients with organic psychoses, epilepsy, and in psychopaths with different affective vibrations. Lithium preparations are also used for the prevention and treatment of affective disorders in patients with chronic alcoholism.
Assign inside after a meal (to reduce the irritating effect on the gastric mucosa). Doses should be set individually and monitored by the serum lithium content. The determination is made by flame photometry. The concentration of lithium in blood plasma should not be lower than 0.6 and not higher than 1, 2 - 1, 6 mmol / l. At lower concentrations, the effect usually does not occur; at higher concentrations, toxic effects are possible.