Description of the medicine: Cystamine dihydrochloride (Cystamini dihydrochloridum)
Cystamine dihydrochloride (Cystamini dihydrochloridum).
Bis (b-aminoethyl) disulfide dihydrochloride.
Synonyms: Cystaminum dihydrochloricum, Cystinamin.
Crystalline powder of white or yellowish color with a specific odor (mercaptan). Easily soluble in water with the formation of turbid solutions, slightly soluble in alcohol.
Cystamine belongs to the group of aminothiols. The first representative of this group was mercamine (synonyms: Wesartan, Susteamine, Mercartamum), which is b-mercaptoethylamine (HS-CH 2 -CH 2 -NH 2). The cystamine molecule can be thought of as a doubled mercamine molecule, where the sulfhydryl groups (—CH) are replaced by a disulfide bond (—SS—).
Aminothiols have a preventive radioprotective effect in acute radiation injury, increasing the body's resistance to ionizing radiation.
The action of aminothiols is based on their ability to reduce the number of radicals, ionized and excited molecules formed in tissues upon irradiation, as well as on the ability of these compounds to interact with certain enzymes and give them resistance to radiant energy. There are other theories of the radioprotective effect of aminothiols (the hypothesis of the "biochemical shock" of Buck and others).
The action of aminothiols is more pronounced when administered for a short time (10-30 minutes) before irradiation. The protective effect after a single injection lasts about 5 hours.
Cystamine (like other aminothiols) is used to prevent and reduce the manifestations of radiation sickness (general malaise, nausea, vomiting, etc.) arising from the use of large doses of radiation for radio and x-ray therapy.
Assign inside in the form of tablets 1 hour before irradiation. The dose depends on the nature of the disease, the condition of the patient’s hematopoietic system, and the dose of radiation.
Daily doses range from 0.2 to 0.8 g.
The drug is used during the entire course of radiation therapy. At the same time, patients should receive general strengthening therapy.
The use of cystamine in case of already developed radiation sickness (with significant leukopenia) does not give a therapeutic effect. The drug does not prevent the development of leukopenia. With a significant decrease in the number of leukocytes in the blood during the period of irradiation and the need to continue treatment, it is possible to use cystamine in combination with leukopoiesis stimulants; if necessary, prescribed blood transfusine.
After taking cystamine, in some cases there is a burning sensation in the esophagus, nausea, sometimes pain in the stomach; these phenomena usually do not prevent the continuation of the drug. It should be borne in mind that the drug has a hypotensive effect; with hypertension, a significant decrease in blood pressure can be observed.
Relative contraindications to the use of cystamine dihydrochloride are acute diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, acute insufficiency of the cardiovascular system, impaired liver function.