Medication Description: Cystamine Dihydrochloride (Cystamini dihydrochloridum)
Cystamine dihydrochloride (Cystamini dihydrochloridum).
Bis- (b-amino-ethyl) disulfide dihydrochloride.
Synonyms: Cystaminum dihydrochloricum, Cystinamin.
Crystalline powder of white or yellowish color with a specific smell (mercaptan). Let's easily dissolve in water with the formation of turbid solutions, slightly soluble in alcohol.
Cystamine belongs to the group of aminothiols. The first representative of this group was mercamine (synonyms: Vesartan, Cesteamine, Mercartmonum), which is b-mercaptoethylamine (HS-CH 2 -CH 2 -NH 2). A cystamine molecule can be considered a double mercamine molecule, where the sulfhydryl group (-SH) is replaced by a disulfide bond (-SS-).
Aminothiols have a prophylactic radioprotective effect in case of acute radiation damage, increasing the body’s resistance to the action of ionizing radiation.
The action of aminothiols is based on their ability to reduce the number of radicals, ionized and excited molecules formed in tissues during irradiation, as well as on the ability of these compounds to interact with certain enzymes and impart stability to them against radiant energy. There are other theories of the radioprotective action of aminothiols (the hypothesis of "biochemical shock" by Buck and others).
The action of aminothiols appears more clearly when administered in a short period (10 - 30 minutes) before irradiation. The protective effect after a single injection lasts about 5 hours.
Cystamine (as well as other aminothiols) is used to prevent and reduce manifestations of radiation sickness (general malaise, nausea, vomiting, etc.) arising from the use of large doses of radiation for radio and roentgenotherapy.
Assign inwards in the form of tablets for 1 h before irradiation. The dose depends on the nature of the disease, the state of the patient’s hematopoietic system, the dose of radiation.
Daily doses range from 0.2 to 0.8 g.
The drug is used during the entire course of radiation therapy. At the same time, patients should receive restorative therapy.
The use of cystamine with an already developed radiation sickness (with significant leukopenia) does not provide a therapeutic effect. The development of leukopenia drug does not warn. With a significant decrease in the number of leukocytes in the blood during the period of irradiation and the need to continue treatment, it is possible to use cystamine in combination with leukopoiesis stimulants; if necessary, prescribe hemotransfuzin.
After taking cystamine in some cases, there is a burning sensation in the esophagus, nausea, and sometimes pain in the stomach; these phenomena usually do not interfere with the continuation of the drug. It should be borne in mind that the drug has a hypotensive effect; in hypertension, there may be a significant decrease in blood pressure.
Relative contraindications to the use of cystamine dihydrochloride are acute diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, acute insufficiency of the cardiovascular system, abnormal liver function.