Description of the medicine: Strychninum (Strychninum)
The main alkaloid of chilibuha seeds (Strychnos nux-vomica), fam. Loganievae (Loganiaceae), growing in tropical regions of Asia and Africa. Chilibuha seed (vomit - semen Strychni; Nux vomica) contains, along with strychnine, other alkaloids (brucin, etc.). The amount of strychnine and brucin is at least 2.5%.
In medical practice, nitric acid salt is used - strychnine nitrate (Strychnini nitras).
Synonym: Strychninum nitricum.
Strychnine nitrate is a colorless shiny needle-like crystals or white crystalline powder. It has an extremely bitter taste. It is sparingly soluble in water (1:90 in cold) and alcohol, slightly soluble in boiling water (1: 5), insoluble in ether. Aqueous solutions have a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. The solutions are sterilized at + 100 ° C for 30 minutes; A 0.1% solution in ampoules is acidified with 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution and has a pH of 3, 0 - 3, 7.
Strychnine and other chilibuha preparations excite the central nervous system and primarily increase reflex excitability. Under the influence of strychnine, reflex reactions become more generalized, with large doses of strychnine various stimuli cause severe painful tetanic seizures.
In therapeutic doses, strychnine has a stimulating effect on the senses (sharpens vision, taste, hearing, tactile feeling), excites the vasomotor and respiratory centers, tones skeletal muscles, as well as the heart muscle, stimulates metabolic processes, and increases the sensitivity of the retina.
The action of strychnine is associated with the facilitation of excitation in interneuronal synapses of the spinal cord. It acts primarily in the area of intercalated neurons. According to modern concepts, strychnine blocks the action of amino acid neurotransmitters, mainly glycine, which play the role of inhibitory factors in the transmission of excitation to postsynaptic nerve endings in the spinal cord. By blocking inhibition, strychnine thus has a "stimulating" effect.
Strychnine is used as a tonic with a general decrease in metabolic processes, rapid fatigue, hypotonic disease, weakening of cardiac activity due to intoxication and infections, with some functional disorders of the visual apparatus (amblyopia, amaurosis, etc.); with paresis and paralysis (in particular, diphtheria in children), with atony of the stomach, etc. Previously, it was widely used to treat acute poisoning with barbiturates; now for this purpose bemegrid is mainly applied (see).
Assign inside (often in pills) and under the skin (0.1% solution). The usual adult dose is 0.0005 - 0.001 g (0.5 - 1 mg) 2 - 3 times a day. Children over 2 years of age are prescribed 0.0001 g (0.1 mg) - 0.0005 g (0.5 mg) per dose, depending on age; up to 2 years are not prescribed.
Higher doses for adults inside and under the skin: single 0.002 g, daily 0.005 g.