Description of the medicine: Ondansetron (Ondansetron)
4H-Carbazol-4-one, 1,2,3,9-tetrahydro-9-methyl-3 - [(2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl) methyl].
Available as monohydrochloride.
Synonyms: Zofran, Latran, Ondazan, Osetron, Emeset, Emetron, Emeset, Latran, Ondansetron, Ondasan, Osetron, Zofran.
White or almost crystalline powder. Soluble in water.
Has an antiemetic effect, which is associated with the blocking of peripheral and central serotonin (5-HT3) receptors (see Serotonin).
When taken orally, it is well absorbed, bioavailability is about 56%, Cmax - for intravenous and oral administration - respectively 10 minutes and 1.7 hours, T1 / 2 - 3.0-5.5 hours; undergoes biotransformation in the liver, excreted by the kidneys mainly in the form of metabolites.
Applied with vomiting associated with chemo- or radiation therapy of malignant neoplasms in the postoperative period. Prevents or eliminates vomiting.
Assign intravenously, intramuscularly, orally and rectally.
With moderate emetogenic chemo- and radiation therapy, 0.008 g (8 mg) is administered intravenously before the start of the course, or inside for Ѕ-2 hours before the course and 8-12 hours after the course, or 0.016 g (16 mg) rectally for 1- 2 hours before the start of the course, or infusion 0.032 g (32 mg) for 15 minutes 30 minutes before the course, or 0.15 mg / kg 3 times — 30 minutes before and then 4 and 8 hours after the course.
For the prevention of late nausea and vomiting, they are administered orally at 0.008 g 2 times a day or rectally 0.016 g (16 mg) 1 time per day for 1-2 days (up to 3-5 days) after the completion of chemotherapy.
Doses of the drug are selected individually depending on the effect and tolerance.
Children are injected into a vein at the rate of 5 mg / sq.m of the body surface; for the prevention of vomiting, they are prescribed in tablets of 0.004 g (4 mg) 2 times a day.
When using the drug, headache, diarrhea or constipation, dry mouth, hiccups, liver failure, disturbance of accommodation, paresthesia, extrapyramidal disorders, arterial hypotension, arrhythmias, bronchospasm, allergic skin reactions are possible.
Contraindications: liver failure; I trimester of pregnancy, breastfeeding.
Method of release: tablets of 0.004 and 0.008 g (4 and 8 mg) (N. 10); rectal suppositories at 0.004; 0.008 and 0.016 g (4, 8 and 16 mg); 0.08% syrup in 50 ml vials; 0.2% solution in ampoules of 2 and 4 ml.
Storage: List B.