Description of the medicine: Glucagon (Glucagon)
Synonym: GlucaGen HypoKit, GlucaGen HypoKit.
The hormone produced by the α-cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas.
A polypeptide (C 153 H 325 N 43 O 49 S) consisting of 29 amino acid residues.
By binding to specific receptors of liver and skeletal muscle cells, it activates adenylate cyclase, which converts ATP to cAMP, which stimulates the activity of phosphorylase, which breaks down glycogen, and suppresses the activity of glycogen synthetase and, as a result, enhances the processes of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in the liver and increases the concentration of glucose in the blood. It also has positive inotropic and antispasmodic activity.
Glucagon is rapidly metabolized in the liver and kidneys (T Ѕ - 10 min).
They are used mainly for stopping hypoglycemia, which develops with an overdose of insulin (see), usually in combination with carbohydrates (glucose solution).
Also used in case of poisoning with β-blockers and calcium channel blockers.
0.5-1 mg adults are administered under the skin, intramuscularly or intravenously, to adults (if necessary, the injections are repeated after 12 minutes); children - 0.025 mg / kg.
In case of poisoning with β-blockers, it is administered intravenously at the rate of 0.005-0.15 mg / kg, then drip at a rate of 1-5 mg per hour, with poisoning with calcium channel blockers, 0.002 g (2 mg) once.
In case of an overdose, nausea, vomiting, allergic reactions can be observed. These phenomena, however, pass quickly.
Pregnant women are prescribed glucagon only when absolutely necessary. It is not recommended to use the drug during lactation.
Glucagon is contraindicated in insulinomas (a paradoxical hypoglycemic reaction is possible) and pheochromocytoma (stimulates the release of catecholamines into the blood).
Release form: lyophilized powder for injection in bottles of 0.001 and 0.01 g (1 and 10 mg) complete with a solvent. Other (multi-dose) dosage forms are also available.