Description of the medicine: Tretinoin (Tretinoin)
The trans form of retinoic acid (has the same structure as the cis form - see Isotretinoin).
Synonyms: Airol, Vesanoid, Locacid, Retin-A, Abarel, Acnavit, Acnelyse, Acretin, Airol, Aknoten, Aviderm, Dermairol, Effederm, Locacid, Retin-A, Tretin, Vesanoid, etc.
Yellow or light orange crystalline powder. It is practically insoluble in water, glycerin and mineral oils; sparingly soluble in ethanol, polyethylene glycol, dimethyl sulfoxide.
When applied topically, it is close to isotretinoin (roaccutane) in action.
When administered orally, it stimulates differentiation processes and inhibits the proliferation of promyelocytes.
With skin application, up to 30% of the drug is absorbed. When administered orally, it is absorbed rapidly, C max is 1-2 hours, T Ѕ - 30 min-2 hours; subjected to biotransformation in the liver, excreted in urine and feces.
It is prescribed for acne vulgaris and drain (locally) and for acute promyelocytic leukemia resistant to standard chemotherapy (inside).
Locally used in the form of a cream, solution or lotion for external use. Apply a thin layer to the affected areas 1-2 times a day. The course of treatment is 4-6 or more (up to 14) weeks. Usually used in 0.05% concentration. With insufficient effect and good tolerance, they are used in 0.1% concentration. Treated skin should be protected from sunlight. The drug should not get into the eyes and mucous membranes.
Inside, 45 mg / m 2 is prescribed per day (in 2 divided doses) for 30-90 days (the maximum allowable daily dose for adults and children is 135 and 60 mg / m 2, respectively).
Possible side effects: bone and muscle pain, weakness, increased intracranial pressure, impaired hearing and vision, dyspepsia, impaired liver and kidney function, alopecia; when applied topically, redness and irritation of the skin.
Contraindicated in pregnancy (probably teratogenic and embryotoxic effects).
Method of release: capsules of 0.01 g (N. 100); 0.05% and 0.1% cream in tubes of 20 and 30 g; 0.1% solution for external use in 15 ml vials; 0.05% lotion in 50 ml vials; 0.025%; 0.05% and 0.1% gel.