Description of the medicine: Vancomycin (Vancomycin)
Synonyms: Vankoled, Vankotsin, Vanmiksan, Editsin, Edicin, Vancocin, Vancoled, Vanmixan.
Powder. It is soluble in water, moderately in methanol.
Tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic produced by Amycolatopsis orientalis.
Active against a number of gram-positive microorganisms (staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, enterococci, corynebacteria, listeria, actinomycetes and clostridia).
Forming a complex with the acyl-D-alanine-D-alanine of the mucoprotein of the bacterial cell wall, disrupts its formation, the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane and RNA synthesis, which leads to the lysis of bacteria.
When taken orally, it is not absorbed; after intravenous administration, therapeutic concentrations in the blood are maintained for 8-10 hours, T Ѕ is 1-8 hours, quickly penetrates the pleural cavity and myocardium, synovial and ascitic fluid; excreted mainly by the kidneys unchanged.
It is used for especially severe infectious and inflammatory diseases, caused mainly by golden (methicillin-resistant) and coagulase-negative staphylococci, enterococci and pneumococci insensitive to penicillins, cephalosporins and other antibiotics: sepsis, endocarditis, pneumonia, abscess, meningitis, osteoarthritis, abscess, meningitis, pseudomembranous colitis (inside, with metronidazole inefficiency); for the prevention of postoperative infections (mainly in cardiovascular surgery and orthopedics), as well as (inside) for acute and chronic liver diseases (including hepatic encephalopathy).
Assign intravenously and orally.
Administer intravenously (for at least 1 hour) adults 2 g (in 200 ml of 5% glucose solution or isotonic sodium chloride solution) per day in 2-4 doses (in surgical practice - 1 g 1 hour before surgery), children - 40-60 mg / kg (up to 2 g) per day in 4 divided doses.
Inside (in the form of a solution) for pseudomembranous colitis, adults are prescribed 0.5-2 g per day, for children - 40 mg / kg per day (in 3-4 doses); with hepatic encephalopathy - 1-2 g 3 times a day for 5-7 days.
Possible side effects: dyspeptic symptoms, allergic reactions, in rare cases, oto- and nephrotoxic effects; after intravenous administration - thrombophlebitis, vasculitis, fever, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, with rapid (intravenous) administration - arterial hypotension, burning sensation, redness of the upper body, pain and muscle cramps in the back and chest.
Contraindications: neuritis of the auditory nerve, renal failure, I trimester of pregnancy.
Release form: lyophilized powder in bottles of 0.5 and 1 g.
Storage: List B.