Description of the medicine: Scopolamine (Scopolaminum)
Alkaloid contained with atropine in belladonna, bleach, dope, scopolia.
Used in the form of scopolamine hydrobromide (Scorolamini hydrobromidum).
Synonyms: Scopolaminum hydrobromicum, Hyoscini hydrobromidum.
Colorless transparent crystals or white crystalline powder. Easily soluble in water (1: 3), soluble in alcohol (1:17). In order to stabilize the solutions for injection, a solution of hydrochloric acid is added to a pH of 2, 8 - 3, 0. Sterilized at + 100 C for 30 minutes.
Chemically, scopolamine is close to atropine: it is an ester of scopin and tropic acid. It is close to atropine in terms of its effect on peripheral cholinergic systems. Like atropine, it causes dilated pupils, accommodation paralysis, increased heart rate, relaxation of smooth muscles, decreased secretion of digestive and sweat glands.
It also has a central anticholinergic effect. Usually causes a sedative effect: reduces motor activity, can have a hypnotic effect. A characteristic property of scopolamine is the amnesia that it causes.
Scopolamine is sometimes used in psychiatric practice as a sedative, in neurological one for the treatment of parkinsonism, in surgical practice together with analgesics (morphine, promedol) to prepare for anesthesia, sometimes as an antiemetic and sedative for sea and air sickness (more often for this the purpose is prescribed Aeron tablets), as well as with iritis, iridocyclitis and with a diagnostic purpose for expanding the pupil instead of atropine.
Contraindications are the same as with the appointment of atropine. It is necessary to take into account a very wide difference in individual sensitivity to scopolamine: relatively often, the usual doses do not cause sedation, but excitement, hallucinations and other side effects.
Scopolamine is prescribed orally (usually in solutions and under the skin in single doses of 0.00025-0.0005 g (0.25-0.5 mg) or 0.5-1 ml of a 0.05% solution. In ocular practice (for expansion pupil and accommodation paralysis) apply a 25% aqueous solution (1 to 2 drops in the eye 2 times a day) or 0.25% ointment
Higher doses for adults inside and under the skin: single 0.0005 g, daily 0.0015 g.
Method of release: powder; 0.05% solution in ampoules of 1 ml.
In ophthalmic practice, along with a 0.25% aqueous solution, a prolonged preparation is used - a solution of scopolamine hydrobromide 0.25% with methyl cellulose (Solutio Scorolamini hidrobromidi 0.25% cum Methylcelluloso). Colorless transparent or slightly opalescent liquid (pH 4, 5 - 6, 5) in bottles of 5 and 10 ml.
Storage: List A. In a well-closed container in a dark place.
Rp.: Sol. Scorolamini hydrobromidi 0.05% 1 ml
DtdN 6 in ampull.
DS 0.5 - 1 ml under the skin
Rp .: Scopolamini hydrocarbomidi 0.0025
Ephedrini hydrochloridi 0.125 ml
Aq. pro inject. 5 ml
DS 1 ml under the skin or intramuscularly as an analgesic for injuries; for induction of anesthesia
Rp .: Sol. Scopolamini hydrobromidi 0.25% 10 ml
DS Eye drops. 1-2 drops 3-4 times a day (with iridocyclitis)
N ote. It is not allowed to take a solution of this concentration inside and introduce it under the skin.
Aeron tablets (Tabulettae Aeronum).