Medication Description: Scopolamine (Scopolaminum)
Alkaloid contained together with atropine in belladonna, henbane, dope, scopolia.
Apply in the form of scopolamine hydrobromide (Ssorolamini hydrobromidum).
Synonyms: Scopolaminum hydrobromicum, Hyoscini hydrobromidum.
Colorless transparent crystals or white crystalline powder. Easily soluble in water (1: 3), soluble in alcohol (1:17). In order to stabilize solutions for injections, a solution of hydrochloric acid is added to a pH of 2, 8 - 3, 0. Sterilized at + 100 C for 30 minutes.
Chemically, scopolamine is close to atropine: it is an ester of scopine and tropic acid. Close to atropine in influencing peripheral cholinergic systems. Like atropine, it causes dilated pupils, accommodation paralysis, increased heart rate, smooth muscle relaxation, and decreased secretion of the digestive and sweat glands.
It also has a central anticholinergic effect. Usually causes a sedative effect: reduces motor activity, may have a hypnotic effect. A characteristic property of scopolamine is the amnesia it causes.
Scopolamine is sometimes used in psychiatric practice as a sedative, in neurological treatment of parkinsonism, in surgical practice together with analgesics (morphine, promedol) to prepare for anesthesia, sometimes as an antiemetic and sedative in sea and air sickness (often for this targets are prescribed pills "Aeron"), as well as for iritis, iridocyclitis, and with a diagnostic purpose for expanding the pupil instead of atropine.
Contraindications are the same as in the appointment of atropine. It is necessary to take into account a very wide difference in individual sensitivity to scopolamine: relatively often, ordinary doses do not cause sedation, but excitement, hallucinations, and other side effects.
Scopolamine is prescribed orally (usually in solutions and under the skin in single doses of 0.00025 - 0.0005 g (0.25 - 0.5 mg) or 0.5 - 1 ml of 0.05% solution. In ocular practice (for expansion pupil and accommodation paralysis) apply 25% aqueous solution (1 to 2 drops in the eye 2 times a day) or 0.25% ointment
Higher doses for adults inside and under the skin: single 0.0005 g daily 0.0015 g
Method of issuance: powder; 0.05% solution in 1 ml ampoules.
In ophthalmic practice, along with a 0.25% aqueous solution, a prolonged preparation is used - a solution of scopolamine hydrobromide 0.25% with methylcellulose (Solutio Ssorolamini hidrobromidi 0.25% cum Methylcelluloso). Colorless transparent or slightly opalescent liquid (pH 4, 5 - 6, 5) in vials of 5 and 10 ml.
Storage: List A. In a well-closed container in a dark place.
R p.: Sol. Scorolamini hydrobromidi 0.05% 1 ml
DtdN 6 in ampull.
DS 0.5 to 1 ml under the skin
Rp .: Scopolamini hydrocarbomidi 0.0025
Ephеdrini hydrochloridi 0,125 ml
Aq. pro inject. 5 ml
DS 1 ml subcutaneously or intramuscularly as obexing for injuries; for induction anesthesia
Rp .: Sol. Scopolamini hydrobromidi 0,25% 10 ml
DS Eye drops. On 1 - 2 drops 3 - 4 times a day (with iridocyclitis)
N ote. It is not allowed to take a solution of this concentration inwards and inject it under the skin.
Tablets "Aeron" (Tabulettae "Aerоnum).