Description of the medicine: Novocaine (Novocainum)
Novocaine (Novocainum). B-Diethylaminoethyl ester of p-aminobenzoic acid hydrochloride.
Synonyms: Aethocain, Allocaine, Ambocain, Aminocaine, Anesthocaine, Atoxicain, Cerocain, Chemocain, Citocain, Ethocaine, Genocaine, Herocaine, Isocain, Jenacain, Marecaine, Minocain, Naucain, Neocaine, Pancain, Paracaine, Planocaine, Polocainum, Procaine, Procaini hydrochloridum , Procaine hydrochloride, Protocaine, Sevicaine, Syncaine, Syntocain, Topocaine, and others.
Colorless crystals or white crystalline powder odorless. Very easily soluble in water (1: 1), easily soluble in alcohol (1: 8). The aqueous solutions are sterilized at + 100 ° C for 30 minutes. Novocaine solutions are easily hydrolyzed in an alkaline medium. To stabilize add 0.1 N. Solution of hydrochloric acid to pH 3, 8 - 4, 5.
Novocaine was synthesized in 1905. For a long time, it was the main local anesthetic used in surgical practice. In comparison with modern local anesthetics (lidocaine, bupivacaine, etc.), it has less strong anesthetic activity. However, due to the relatively low toxicity, large therapeutic breadth and additional valuable pharmacological properties that allow it to be used in various fields of medicine, it is still widely used.
Unlike cocaine, novocaine does not cause addiction.
In addition to the local anesthetic effect, novocaine, when absorbed and directly injected into the blood stream, has a general effect on the body: it reduces the formation of acetylcholine and reduces the excitability of peripheral cholinergic systems, has a blocking effect on the vegetative ganglia, reduces spasms of smooth muscles, reduces the excitability of the heart muscle and motor zones of the cortex Brain.
In the body, novocaine is relatively quickly hydrolyzed, forming para-aminobenzoic acid and diethylaminoethanol.
Novocaine disintegration products are pharmacologically active substances. Para-Aminobenzoic acid (vitamin H 1) is an integral part of the molecule of folic acid; It also enters the bound state in the composition of other compounds found in plant and animal tissues. For bacteria, para-aminobenzoic acid is a "growth factor". By chemical structure, it is similar to part of the molecule of sulfonamides; Entering with the latter in a competitive relationship, para-aminobenzoic acid weakens their antibacterial effect (see Sulfanilamide preparations). Novocain, as the derivative p-aminobenzoic acid, also has an antisulfonylamide action. Diethylaminoethanol has moderate vasodilating properties.
Novocaine is widely used for local anesthesia - mainly for infiltration; For superficial anesthesia, it is of little use, since it slowly penetrates through undamaged mucous membranes. Novocaine is widely prescribed for curative blockades.
For infiltrative anesthetics, 0.25-0.5% solutions are used; For anesthesia by the method of A.V. Vishnevskogo (tight creeping infiltration) 0,125 - 0,25% solutions; For conductive anesthesia - 1 - 2% solutions; For epidural - 2% solution (20 - 25 ml).