Medication Description: Novocainum (Novocainum)
Novocainum (Novocainum). b-Diethylaminoethyl ester of para-aminobenzoic acid hydrochloride.
Synonyms: Aethocain, Allocaine, Ambocain, Aminocaine, Anesthocaine, Atoxicain, Cerocain, Chemocain, Citocain, Ethocaine, Genocaine, Herocaine, Isocain, Jenacain, Marecaine, Minocain, Naucain, Neocaine; , Procaine hydrochloride, Protocaine, Sevicaine, Syncaine, Syntocain, Topocaine, etc.
Colorless crystals or white crystalline powder; odorless. Very easily soluble in water (1: 1), easily soluble in alcohol (1: 8). Aqueous solutions are sterilized at + 100 ° C for 30 minutes. Novocaine solutions are easily hydrolyzed in an alkaline medium. To stabilize add 0.1 n. hydrochloric acid solution to pH 3, 8 - 4, 5.
Novocain was synthesized in 1905. For a long time it was the main local anesthetic used in surgical practice. Compared with modern local anesthetics (lidocaine, bupivacaine, etc.), it has less strong anesthetic activity. However, due to the relatively low toxicity, high therapeutic breadth and additional valuable pharmacological properties, allowing it to be used in various fields of medicine, it still has wide application.
Unlike cocaine, novocaine causes no addiction.
In addition to the local anesthetic effect, novocaine has a general effect on the body during absorption and direct introduction into the bloodstream: it reduces the formation of acetylcholine and reduces the excitability of peripheral cholinoreactive systems, has a blocking effect on the vegetative ganglia, reduces spasms of smooth muscles, reduces the excitability of the heart muscle and motor areas of the cortex the brain.
In the body, novocaine is relatively rapidly hydrolyzed, forming para-aminobenzoic acid and diethylaminoethanol.
The decomposition products of novocaine are pharmacologically active substances. para-aminobenzoic acid (vitamin H 1) is an integral part of the folic acid molecule; it is also bound in the composition of other compounds found in plant and animal tissues. For bacteria, para-aminobenzoic acid is a "growth factor." By chemical structure, it is similar to part of the sulfonamide molecule; entering into a competitive relationship with the latter, para-aminobenzoic acid weakens their antibacterial action (see Sulfanilamide preparations). Novocain as a para-aminobenzoic acid derivative also has antisulfanilamide action. Diethylaminoethanol has moderate vasodilating properties.
Novocain is widely used for local anesthesia - mainly for infiltration; for surface anesthesia, it is of little use, as it slowly penetrates intact mucous membranes. Novocaine is also widely prescribed for medical blockades.
For the infiltration anesthesin apply 0.25 - 0.5% solution; for anesthesia by the method of A.V. Vishnevsky (tight creeping infiltration) 0,125 - 0,25% solutions; for conduction anesthesia - 1 - 2% solutions; for epidural - 2% solution (20 - 25 ml).