Description of the medicine: Novocainum (Novocainum)
Novokain (Novocainum). b-Diethylaminoethyl ester of para-aminobenzoic acid hydrochloride.
Synonyms: aethocain, allocaine, ambocain, aminocaine, anesthocaine, atoxicain , Procaine hydrochloride, Protocaine, Sevicaine, Syncaine, Syntocain, Topocaine, etc.
Colorless crystals or odorless white crystalline powder. Very easily soluble in water (1: 1), easily soluble in alcohol (1: 8). Aqueous solutions are sterilized at + 100 ° C for 30 minutes. Solutions of novocaine are easily hydrolyzed in an alkaline environment. To stabilize, add 0.1 N. hydrochloric acid solution to pH 3, 8 - 4, 5.
Novocaine was synthesized in 1905. For a long time, it was the main local anesthetic used in surgical practice. Compared with modern local anesthetics (lidocaine, bupivacaine, etc.), it has a less strong anesthetic activity. However, due to its relatively low toxicity, large therapeutic breadth, and additional valuable pharmacological properties that make it possible to use it in various fields of medicine, it is still widely used.
Unlike cocaine, novocaine does not cause drug addiction.
In addition to the local anesthetic effect, when absorbed and directly introduced into the blood stream, novocaine has a general effect on the body: it reduces the formation of acetylcholine and lowers the excitability of peripheral cholinergic systems, has a blocking effect on the autonomic ganglia, reduces smooth muscle spasms, and reduces the excitability of the heart muscle and motor cortex of the large cortex brain.
In the body, novocaine is relatively rapidly hydrolyzed, forming para-aminobenzoic acid and diethylaminoethanol.
The decay products of novocaine are pharmacologically active substances. para-aminobenzoic acid (vitamin H 1) is an integral part of the folic acid molecule; it is also in a bound state in other compounds found in plant and animal tissues. For bacteria, para-aminobenzoic acid is a "growth factor." In chemical structure, it is similar to part of the sulfanilamide molecule; entering into a competitive relationship with the latter, para-aminobenzoic acid weakens their antibacterial effect (see. Sulfanilamide preparations). Novocaine as a derivative of para-aminobenzoic acid also has an antisulfanilamide effect. Diethylaminoethanol has moderate vasodilating properties.
Novocaine is widely used for local anesthesia - mainly for infiltration; it is of little use for superficial anesthesia, since it slowly penetrates through intact mucous membranes. Novocaine is also widely prescribed for therapeutic blockades.
0.25 - 0.5% solutions are used for infiltration anesthesin; for anesthesia according to the method of A.V. Vishnevsky (tight creeping infiltration) 0.125 - 0.25% solutions; for conduction anesthesia - 1 - 2% solutions; for epidural - 2% solution (20 - 25 ml).