Description of medicine: Magnesium sulfate (Magnesii sulfas)
MAGNESIUM SULPHATE (Magnesii sulfas).
Synonyms: Bitter salt, Magnesium sulfuricum, Sal amarum.
Colorless prismatic crystals, weathered in air, are easily soluble in water (1: 1 in cold and W, W: 1 in boiling); practically insoluble in alcohol. Aqueous solutions have a bitter-salty taste.
Solutions for injection (pH 6, 2 - 8, 0) are sterilized at +100 ° C for 30 minutes, at +120 ° C for 8 minutes.
Magnesium sulfate has a multifaceted effect on the body. When taken orally, it is poorly absorbed, acts as a laxative, like sodium sulfate, and also has a choleretic effect, which is associated with reflexes that occur when irritating the nerve endings of the duodenal mucosa.
With parenteral administration of magnesium sulfate has a calming effect on the central nervous system. Depending on the dose, a sedative, hypnotic or narcotic effect may be observed.
One of the features of magnesium sulfate is its inhibitory effect on neuromuscular transmission. With parenteral administration, especially in large doses, it can have a curariform effect.
The drug reduces the excitability of the respiratory center, large doses of the drug with parenteral administration can easily cause respiratory paralysis. Blood pressure decreases slightly due to the general calming effect of the drug; this effect is more pronounced with hypertension.
Magnesium sulfate is excreted by the kidneys, diuresis is intensified in the process of excretion.
Antagonists of the magnesium ion are calcium ions. A decrease in calcium in the blood is accompanied by an increase in the action of magnesium. Calcium salts are used as antidotes for magnesium sulfate poisoning.
Magnesium sulfate is used as a laxative and choleretic agent, and sometimes as a sedative, antispasmodic, and anticonvulsant. As a narcotic, it is not used due to the small breadth of action (narcotic doses easily cause paralysis of the respiratory center), however, it can be used to enhance the effect of drugs and analgesics.
As a laxative, it is prescribed orally (at night or on an empty stomach - 3 minutes before meals) for adults - 10-30 g in 1/2 cup of water, for children - at the rate of 1 g for 1 year of life. For chronic constipation, enemas can be used (100 ml of a 20-30% solution).
As a choleretic, it is taken orally by 1 tablespoon of 20 - 25% solution 3 times a day; Duodenal sounding is also carried out with the introduction of a warm solution of magnesium sulfate (50 ml of 25% or 100 ml of 10% solution) through the probe.
As an antispasmodic (and to some extent antihypertensive), it is sometimes used in the treatment of the early stages of hypertension. Intramuscularly administered in 5-10 - 20 ml of a 20% or 25% solution of magnesium sulfate. The course of treatment is 15 to 20 injections (daily). Along with a decrease in blood pressure, symptoms of angina pectoris may decrease.