Description of the medicine: Acetylcysteine (Acetylcysteinum)
Synonyms: Broncholysin, Mucosolvin, Acetein, Acetulcysteine, Airbron,
Broncholysin, Fluimucetin, Fluimucil, Inspir, Mucisol, Mucofilin, Mucol ticum, Mucomyst, Mucosolvin, Racomex, etc.
Crystalline powder, white or white with a slightly yellowish tinge, with a faint specific odor. Easily soluble in water and alcohol; pH of a 20% aqueous solution of 7, 0 - 7, 5.
It is a derivative of the amino acid cysteine (see), from which acetyl cysteine differs in that one hydrogen of the amino group is replaced by a residue of acetic acid.
Acetylcysteine is an effective mucolytic (secretolytic) drug.
By diluting sputum and increasing its volume, acetylcysteine facilitates its secretion; promotes expectoration, also reduces inflammation.
The action of the drug is due to the ability of its free sulfhydryl groups to break the disulfide bonds of acid mucopolysaccharides of sputum, which leads to the depolarization of mucoproteins and a decrease in the viscosity of mucus. The drug also dilutes pus.
It is used for respiratory diseases accompanied by increased viscosity of sputum with the addition of purulent infection (acute and chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, etc.). Pros are prescribed lactically to prevent complications during operations on the respiratory organs, as well as after endotracheal anesthesia. It is also recommended for bronchoscopy to flush the bronchial tree.
The drug is effective in infectious-allergic bronchial asthma complicated by bacterial, especially purulent, bronchitis or suppurating bronchiectasis. However, in these cases, caution should be exercised in connection with the possibility of increased bronchio spasm. It is prophylactically advisable to simultaneously take bronchodilators. '
Acetylcysteine is used in the form of inhalations of 2-5 ml of a 20% solution 3-4 times a day (for 15-20 minutes); 1 ml of a 10% solution is administered intratracheally every hour (as a slow instillation); 5 - 10% solutions are used for bronchoscopy during medical bronchoscopy. + If it is impossible to use the solution of acetylcysteine in the form of inhalation and intratracheal (for injuries of the respiratory tract, coma, etc.), as well as in pediatric practice, the drug is administered intramuscularly.
Adults are injected intramuscularly with 1 - 2 ml of a 10% solution 2 to 3 times a day; infants - at the rate of 10 - 15 mg / kg 2 times a day; children over 1 year old - 0.5 to 1 ml of a 10% solution 2 times a day.
The duration of treatment depends on the nature and course of the disease; usually, the course of treatment lasts 1 to 2 weeks; with tracheobronchitis - 3 - 4 days, with cystic fibrosis - 7 - 10 days.
If necessary, the drug is administered intravenously. Adult dose of 0.5 g (10 ml of 5% solution). 30 to 90 minutes after administration, sputum separation is facilitated, which is removed by coughing or aspiration. The effect of the drug in a single dose lasts 2 to 4 hours. During the course of treatment, 10 ml of a 5% solution are administered 2 times a day for 7 to 10 days.