Description of the medicine: Pentoxifylline (Pentoxyphyllin)
PENTOXYPHYLLIN (Pentoxyphyllin) *. 3, 7-Dimethyl-1- (5-oxohexyl) -xanthine, or 1- (5-oxohexyl) theobromine.
Synonyms: Agapurin, Trental, Agapurin, Oxpentifylline, Pentoxifyllin, Ralofekt, Terental, Torental, Trental.
White crystalline powder. Soluble in water.
The chemical structure is close to theophylline and theobromine.
The drug improves microcirculation and rheological properties of blood. It has a vasodilating effect and improves tissue oxygen supply. Blocks adenosine receptors. It inhibits phosphodiesterase and promotes the accumulation of cAMP in platelets. Reduces platelet aggregation and leads to their disaggregation, increases the elasticity (deformability) of red blood cells, reduces blood viscosity.
The drug is rapidly absorbed. The peak plasma concentration is observed 1 hour after ingestion. By the 8th hour, the concentration is significantly reduced (up to 10% of the initial). It is allocated mainly in the form of non-toxic metabolites by the kidneys.
Pentoxifylline is used for peripheral circulation disorders (endarteritis, Raynaud’s disease, etc.), cerebrovascular pathology (atherosclerotic disorders, ischemic conditions, after a heart attack, etc.), vascular eye pathology, diabetic nephroangiopathy and other diabetic angiopathies, functional hearing impairments.
The drug is effective for coronary heart disease, combined with microangiopathy of sclerotic or diabetic origin. However, the drug does not have pronounced antianginal activity.
Pentoxifylline is prescribed orally, intravenously and intraarterially. Inside, take, starting with 0.2 g (2 tablets) 3 times a day after meals, without chewing (there is evidence of the advisability of increasing daily doses to 800 - 1200 mg.). After the onset of the therapeutic effect (usually after 1 to 2 weeks), the dose is reduced to 0.1 g (1 tablet) 3 times a day. The course of treatment is 2 to 3 weeks or more.
If necessary (acute disturbances of peripheral or cerebral circulation - ischemic stroke) are administered intravenously or intraarterially. 0.1 g (1 ampoule) is injected intravenously in 250 - 500 ml of isotonic sodium chloride solution or in 5% glucose solution for 90 180 minutes. The daily dose can be further increased to 0.2-0.3 g. Intraarterially, first 0.1 g of the drug is administered in 20-50 ml of isotonic sodium chloride solution, on the following days - 0.2-0.3 g (in 30 to 50 ml of solvent). Enter at a rate of 0.1 g (5 ml of a 2% solution of the drug) for 10 minutes
When administered, dyspeptic symptoms, nausea, dizziness, redness of the face are possible; with parenteral administration, a decrease in blood pressure.
Contraindications: acute myocardial infarction, massive bleeding, severe sclerosis of the coronary vessels and cerebral vessels. With far-reaching atherosclerosis of the brain, the drug cannot be injected into the carotid artery. With the simultaneous use of antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs, the dose of pentoxifylline must be reduced.
The drug should not be used during pregnancy.