Medication Description: Corticotropinum
Synonyms: Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH, Acethrophan, ACTH, Acthar-Acton, Actrope, Adrenocorticotrophin, Cibathen, Corticotrophinum, Cortrophin, Exacthin, Hormonum adrenocorticotropinum, Solanthyl.
A hormone that forms in the basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary gland. For medical use, corticotropin for injection (Corticotropinum pro injectionibus) is obtained from the pituitary gland of cattle, pigs and sheep. Available in glass, hermetically sealed vials in the form of sterile lyophilized powder of white or almost white color, easily soluble in water. The solution for injection is prepared ex tempore by dissolving the powder (under aseptic conditions) in sterile isotonic sodium chloride solution.
Corticotropin is a polypeptide hormone consisting of 39 amino acids. Its activity is determined biologically and is expressed in units of action (ED).
Cortinotropin is a physiological stimulator of the adrenal cortex. It causes increased biosynthesis and the release of corticosteroid hormones into the bloodstream, mainly glucocorticoids (cortisol, cortisone, etc.) as well as androgens. At the same time decreases the content in the adrenal glands of ascorbic acid, cholesterol.
There is a close relationship between the release of corticotropin from the anterior pituitary and the concentration of adrenal cortex hormones in the blood. Increased excretion of corticotropin begins when the concentration of corticosteroids in the blood falls and is inhibited if the content of corticosteroids rises to a certain level.
The therapeutic effect of corticotropin is similar to the action of glucocorticosteroids. It has anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects, has immunosuppressive activity, causes atrophy of the connective tissue, affects carbohydrate; protein metabolism and other biochemical processes.
Previously, corticotropin was widely used to treat rheumatism, infectious nonspecific polyarthritis, bronchial asthma, acute lymphoblastic and myeloblastic leukemia, neurodermatitis, eczema, various allergic and other diseases. Currently, for these purposes, usually used glucocorticoids, as well as nonsteroidal drugs (anti-inflammatory, antihistamine and antiallergic drugs, etc.).
Basically, corticotropin is used in the secondary hypofunction of the adrenal cortex, to prevent atrophy of the adrenal glands and the development of <withdrawal syndrome> after prolonged treatment with corticosteroid drugs. However, corticotropin continues to be an effective treatment for these diseases.
Corticotropin is also used to study the functional state of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system.
Corticotropin is usually injected into the muscles. When ingested, the drug is ineffective, as it is destroyed by enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. When introduced into the muscles, it is rapidly absorbed.