Description of the medicine: Corticotropin (Corticotropinum)
Synonyms: ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone, Acethrophan, ACTH, Acthar-Acton, Actrope, Adrenocorticotrophin, Cibathen, Corticotrophinum, Cortrophin, Exacthin, Hormonum adrenocorticotropinum, Solanthyl.
The hormone that forms in the basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary gland. For medical use, corticotropin for injection (Corticotropinum pro injectionibus) is obtained from the pituitary gland of cattle, pigs and sheep. Available in glass, hermetically sealed vials in the form of a sterile lyophilized powder of white or almost white color, readily soluble in water. An injection solution is prepared ex tempore by dissolving the powder (under aseptic conditions) in a sterile isotonic sodium chloride solution.
Corticotropin is a polypeptide hormone consisting of 39 amino acids. Its activity is determined biologically and is expressed in units of action (ED).
Cortinotropin is a physiological stimulant of the adrenal cortex. It causes an increase in biosynthesis and the release of corticosteroid hormones into the blood stream, mainly glucocorticoids (cortisol, cortisone, etc.) as well as androgens. At the same time, the content of ascorbic acid and cholesterol in the adrenal glands decreases.
There is a close relationship between the release of corticotropin from the anterior pituitary gland and the concentration of hormones of the adrenal cortex in the blood. The increased release of corticotropin begins with a decrease in the concentration of corticosteroids in the blood and is inhibited if the corticosteroid content rises to a certain level.
The therapeutic effect of corticotropin is similar to that of glucocorticosteroids. It has anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects, has immunosuppressive activity, causes atrophy of connective tissue, affects carbohydrate; protein metabolism and other biochemical processes.
Previously, corticotropin was widely used to treat rheumatism, non-specific infectious polyarthritis, bronchial asthma, acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia, neurodermatitis, eczema, various allergic and other diseases. Currently, glucocorticoids, as well as non-steroid drugs (anti-inflammatory, anti-histamine and anti-allergic drugs, etc.) are usually used for these purposes.
Corticotropin is mainly used for secondary hypofunction of the adrenal cortex, to prevent adrenal atrophy and the development of "withdrawal syndrome" after prolonged treatment with corticosteroid drugs. However, corticotropin continues to be an effective treatment for these diseases.
Corticotropin is also used to study the functional state of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system.
Corticotropin is usually injected into the muscles. When taken orally, the drug is ineffective, as it is destroyed by enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract. When introduced into the muscles, it is rapidly absorbed.