Medication Description: Dexamethasone (Dexamethasonum)
Dexamethasone (Dexamethasonum). 9 a-Fluoro-11 b, 17 a, 21-trioxy-16 a-methyl-pregna-1, 4 diene-3, 20-dione, or 9 a-fluoro-16 a-methyl prednisolone.
Synonyms: Amradexone, Arcodexan, Cortadex, Deason, Decacort, Decacortin, Decadinone, Decardon, Decardolone, Decacolone, Dekacort, Desometon, Dexacort, Dexamecortin, Dexametan, Dexason, Dexone, Hexadecadrol, Hexadrol, and in the same section, an example, in the same section, anxdan, Dexason, Dexason, Dexone, Dexone, Dexone, Dexone, Dexone, Dexacon , Resticort, Steralol, Superprendol, Wymesone, etc.
White or white with a yellowish sheen crystalline powder. Practically insoluble in water, difficult to dissolve in alcohol.
A characteristic feature of the chemical structure of dexamethasone is the presence of a fluorine atom in its molecule. The effect on the body is similar to other glucocorticosteroids, but it is more active, has a strong anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effect.
The effectiveness of 0.5 mg of dexamethasone corresponds to about 3, 5 mg of prednisone, 15 mg of hydrocortisone or 17, 5 mg of cortisone; thus, it is 7 times more active than prednisolone and 35 times more active than cortisone.
Indications for use are basically the same as for other similar drugs: rheumatoid arthritis, dermatosis, nephrotic syndrome, allergic diseases (bronchial asthma, etc.), lymphoma granulomatosis, etc.
Assign inside. The usual daily dose for adults is 0.002 - 0.003 g (2 to 3 mg); in severe cases, it is increased to 0.004 -0.006 g, after the onset of the therapeutic effect, the dose is gradually reduced; maintenance dose is 0.0005 - 0.001 g (0.5 - 1 mg) per day. The daily dose is prescribed in 2 - 3 doses during or after a meal.
Depending on the age, children are prescribed from 0.00025 g (0.25 mg = 1/2 tablet) to 0.002 g (2 mg = 4 tablets) per day in 3 to 4 doses.
The drug is well tolerated. In therapeutic doses, relatively little affects the exchange of electrolytes and usually does not cause sodium and water retention in the body. However, it is necessary to take into account that in large doses and in case of hypersensitivity this drug may cause side effects characteristic of other glucocorticosteroids; treatment should be carried out under close medical supervision, taking into account possible complications and contraindications.
Treatment is stopped gradually, as with the use of other glucocorticosteroids; it is advisable at the end of treatment to appoint several injections of corticotropin.
Product form: tablets of 0.0005 g (0.5 mg).
Storage: List B. In a dry, dark place.
In severe cases of adrenal insufficiency, shock and unconsciousness, etc. Intravenous and intramuscularly soluble form of dexamethasone (dexamethasone-21-phosphate in the form of sodium salt) is administered in 1 ml ampoules containing 0.004 g of the preparation (4 mg).
Dexamethasone 21-phosphate sodium salt is administered in 1 to 2 ml per day.
After reaching a therapeutic effect, dexamethasone is taken orally.
Soluble dexamethasone (in ophthalmic practice) is administered retrobulbarno.
In psychiatric practice, dexamethasone is used to diagnose affective disorders (the so-called deximethasone test). Normally, the introduction of dexamethasone leads to a decrease in the content of hydrocortisone (cortisol) in the blood.