Description of the medicine: Dexamethasone (Dexamethasonum)
DEXAMETASONE (Dexamethasonum). 9 a -Fluoro-11 b, 17 a, 21-trioxy-16 a-methyl-pregna-1, 4 diene-3, 20-dione, or 9 a - fluoro-16 a-methylprednisolone.
Synonyms: amradexone, arcodexan, cortadex, deason, decacort, decacortin, decadin , Resticort, Steralol, Superprendol, Wymesone, etc.
Crystalline powder, white or white with a yellowish tint. It is practically insoluble in water, it is hardly soluble in alcohol.
A characteristic feature of the chemical structure of dexamethasone is the presence of a fluorine atom in its molecule. By its effect on the body, it is close to other glucocorticosteroids, but is more active, has a strong anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effect.
In terms of effectiveness, 0.5 mg of dexamethasone corresponds to approximately 3.5 mg of prednisone, 15 mg of hydrocortisone or 17.5 mg of cortisone; thus, it is 7 times more active than prednisone and 35 times more active than cortisone.
Indications for use are basically the same as for other similar drugs: rheumatoid arthritis, dermatosis, nephrotic syndrome, allergic diseases (bronchial asthma, etc.), lymphogranulomatosis, etc.
Assign inside. The usual daily dose for adults is 0.002 to 0.003 g (2 to 3 mg); in severe cases, it is increased to 0.004-0.006 g, after the onset of the therapeutic effect, the dose is gradually reduced; the maintenance dose is 0.0005 - 0.001 g (0.5 - 1 mg) per day. The daily dose is prescribed in 2 to 3 doses during or after meals.
Depending on the age, children are prescribed from 0.00025 g (0.25 mg = 1/2 tablet) to 0.002 g (2 mg = 4 tablet) per day in 3 to 4 doses.
The drug is well tolerated. In therapeutic doses, relatively little effect on the exchange of electrolytes and usually does not cause a delay in sodium and water in the body. However, it must be borne in mind that in large doses and with increased sensitivity, this drug can also cause side effects characteristic of other glucocorticosteroids; treatment should be carried out under close medical supervision, taking into account possible complications and contraindications.
Treatment is stopped gradually, as with other glucocorticosteroids; it is advisable to prescribe several injections of corticotropin at the end of treatment.
Release form: tablets on 0,0005 g (0.5 mg).
Storage: List B. In a dry, dark place.
In severe cases of adrenal insufficiency, shock and unconsciousness, etc. a soluble form of dexamethasone (dexamethasone-21-phosphate in the form of sodium salt) is administered intravenously and intramuscularly, produced in 1 ml ampoules containing 0.004 g of the drug (4 mg).
Dexamethasone-21-phosphate sodium salt is administered in 1 - 2 ml per day.
After the therapeutic effect is achieved, dexamethasone is taken orally.
Soluble dexamethasone is administered retrobulbarly (in ophthalmic practice).
In psychiatric practice, dexamethasone is used to diagnose affective disorders (the so-called deximethasone test). Normally, the administration of dexamethasone leads to a decrease in the content of hydrocortisone (cortisol) in the blood.