Description of the medicine: Cyanocobalamin (Cyanocobalaminum)
VITAMIN B 12 (Vitaminum B 12).
Co a - [a - (5, 6-Dimethylbenzimidazolyl) -Co b -cobamide cyanide, or a - (5, 6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) -cobamide cyanide.
Synonyms: Actamin B12, Almeret, Anacobin, Antinem, Antipernicin, Arcavit B12, Bedodec, Bedoxyl, Bedumil, Berubigen, Biopar, Catavin, Cobastab, Cobavite, Cobione, Curibin, Cycobemin, Cycoplex, Cytacon, Cytobtn, Cytamen, , Distivit, Dobetin, Dociton, Dodecavit, Emobione, Grisevit, Hepagon, Lentovit, Megalovel, Novivit, Pernapar, Redamin, Reticulogen, Rubavit, Rubivitan, Rubramin, Vibicon, etc.
The crystalline powder is dark red odorless. Hygroscopic. It is soluble in water; solutions are red (or pink) in color. Solutions are sterilized at a temperature of + 100 ° C for 30 minutes. With prolonged autoclaving, the vitamin is destroyed. Oxidizing reducing substances (for example, ascorbic acid) and salts of heavy metals contribute to the inactivation of the vitamin. Microflora quickly absorbs vitamin B 12, so solutions should be stored under aseptic conditions.
A characteristic chemical feature of the cyanocobalamin molecule is the presence of a cobalt atom and a cyano group in it, which form a coordination complex.
Vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) is not formed by animal tissues. Its synthesis in nature is carried out by microorganisms, mainly bacteria, actinomycetes, blue-green algae. In humans and animals, it is synthesized by the intestinal microflora, from where it enters the organs, accumulating in the greatest quantities in the kidneys, liver, and intestinal wall. Synthesis in the intestines of the body's need for vitamin B 12 is not fully provided; additional quantities come from animal products. Vitamin B 12 is contained in various amounts in medical preparations obtained from the liver of animals (see Vitohepat).
In the body, cyanocobalamin is converted into the coenzyme form of adenosylcobalamin, or cobamamide (see), which is the active form of vitamin B 12.
Cyanocobalamin has a high biological activity. It is a growth factor, necessary for normal blood formation and maturation of red blood cells; participates in the synthesis of labile methyl groups and in the formation of choline, methionine, creatine, nucleic acids; promotes the accumulation of compounds containing sulfhydryl groups in red blood cells. It has a beneficial effect on the function of the liver and nervous system.
Cyanocobalamin activates the blood coagulation system; in high doses, it causes an increase in thromboplastic activity and prothrombin activity.
It activates the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. With atherosclerosis, it slightly lowers blood cholesterol, increases the lecithin cholesterol index.
Cyanocobalamin has a pronounced therapeutic effect in Addison-Birmer disease, agastric anemia (after resection of the stomach), in case of anemia due to polyposis and syphilis of the stomach, in anemia accompanying enterocolitis, as well as in other pernicious anemia, including due to invasion with wide ribbon during pregnancy, sprue, etc.