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mental illness

The concept of psychiatry. The Greek word psychiatry literally translated means the science of treatment for doctoring soul. Over time, the meaning of the term has expanded and deepened, and now psychiatry is a science of mental illness in the broadest sense of the word, including the causes and mechanisms of development of mental illness, a description of their clinical presentation, treatment methods, prevention, maintenance of mental patients and rehabilitation.
Anatomical and physiological substrate of psychic, mental activity is the brain. Causes of disorders of brain activity is different. Etolibo internal (endogenous) pressures caused by genetic predisposition and disturbance of the biochemical and metabolic processes or external associated with exposure to environmental factors such as directly on the central nervous system (cranial, trauma), and the whole body (infections, intoxications , atherosclerosis, etc.).
The extent of violations of brain activity varies from light to function (reversible) disorders to severe organic lesions. Psychopathological manifestations depend on the nature and severity of these disorders. In milder disorders of brain function occur neurotic reactions, neuroses, shallow depression - the so-called border states, where the state of health changes and adaptation of the patients in the community, however, retained control over their behavior and critical assessment. In diseases caused by deeper lesions of the brain activity occur psychosis, in which the disturbed perception and evaluation of others, self, completely changing human behavior is determined painful installations, in other words, the patient's behavior is out of control consciousness, self-control and self-esteem. Accordingly, measures the impact on the patient, both medical and social, are quite different in the neuroses and psychoses, and are determined by the nature and severity of mental disorders, taking into account the individual characteristics of the individual.
Psychiatry - a young science, the beginning of its development attributed to the XVIII century. Until that time, patients were not treated, but only different methods isolated from society: in the Middle Ages were burned at the stake, was kept in prison, chained to the walls, bricked into the walls of the monastery. The first major institution for the mentally ill in Ireland appeared at one of the monasteries in the XV century. In the XVI century there was already quite a large shelter, known as Bedlam, but the official institution for the mentally ill was discovered only in 1751 in London.
The turning point in relation to the mentally ill and their content was reform carried out by the French psychiatrist Pinel in 1792, which resulted with the mentally ill, some treatments (bloodletting, violent baths and showers) chains were removed and have been used. The release of patients from the chains of a new stage in psychiatry - the introduction of the system, or rather unconstrained unbundling of the mentally ill. However, this does not mean that all patients immediately released from all restraint measures. For many years (and in some countries and is still) used the so-called "straitjackets" (special shirts with extra long sleeves, knotted around the body), and even a small chain that shackled patients to the bench, a bed.
In Russia, the mentally ill was always more humane treatment. Since ancient times, "lunatics" were considered "poor", "strange", "holy fools", "blessed" and found refuge in the monasteries. The first psychiatric hospitals were built by order of Empress Catherine II in the city of Novgorod (1776), at the Obukhov Hospital in St. Petersburg (1782) and the Transfiguration Hospital in Moscow (1785). Psychiatry Teaching in Russia was officially introduced in 1835 at the Imperial Medico-Surgical Academy.
Since psychiatric science has undergone very dramatic changes. Contain the mentally ill in a specially equipped medical institutions, apply all modern diagnostic and treatment methods. However, public opinion continues to exist a lot of prejudices. The news that the man was on reception at the psychiatrist, sometimes regarded as a proof of his "inferiority".
Despite various negative phenomena, the international experience shows a broad development of mental health care, especially in developed countries. Creating not only the purely mental, but also of special psychological, psychosomatic and psychotherapeutic services contributes not only to get rid of mental illness, but also helps in the treatment of somatic diseases in the liberation of "internal systems", intrapersonal and interpersonal conflicts, solving many social and family problems.
In our country, the provision of mental health care to the population is carried out by a number of medical institutions. In the mental hospital patient can apply himself, or sent to other doctors. Depending on the nature of the disease and its severity of the patient being treated on an outpatient basis, day hospital or in a hospital. It should be noted that under the existing legislation, patients with borderline mental disorders (neurosis, psychopathy and other psychotic conditions) are not put into a special account and have no legal and social restrictions.
In cases where the examination and treatment of a patient for one reason or another can not be done on an outpatient basis, it is placed in the hospital only with the consent of his hand. Forced hospitalization applied mainly in two ways. 1. When a patient is dangerous to others, can make for a painful explanation of antisocial behavior and criminal offenses. For example, patients with delusions of persecution may kill his "imaginary" pursuer, a patient with command hallucinations ( "voice", orders to do anything) can make any unforeseen actions detrimental to others. 2. When the patient is a danger to themselves, ie samubiystvo can commit (suicide). Suicidal thoughts may be due to depressive conditions associated with delusions of certain content, command hallucinations, and so on. Sometimes patients make so-called "advanced" suicides, ie kill their loved ones (wife, husband, child), and then himself. This behavior is also commonly associated with mental disorders (major depression, delusional behavior).
Helping the mentally ill, hospitalization, including coercive, are carried out in accordance with the RF Law "On psychiatric care and guarantees of citizens' rights in its provision" adopted by the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation 07.02.92.