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Drug groups

Группы лекарственных препаратов

All modern medicines are grouped according to the following basic principles:

  1. By therapeutic use (therapeutic groups): for example, drugs for the treatment of inflammation, lowering blood pressure, antimicrobials.
  2. Pharmacological action, that is, the effect caused (vasodilators - dilating blood vessels, antispasmodics - eliminating vasospasm, analgesics - reducing pain irritation).
  3. Chemical structure: for example, salicylates derived from acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, salicylamide, methyl salicylate), fluoroquinolones.
  4. To the nosological principle, that is, some drugs are used to treat a strictly defined disease (for example, drugs for treating myocardial infarction, bronchial asthma, etc.), others can be used in the treatment of several diseases.

All drugs can be divided into the following groups:

  1. Medicines that act mainly on the central nervous system (anesthetics, sleeping pills, anticonvulsants, tranquilizers and antipsychotics, antidepressants, psychostimulants, nootropic drugs, drugs for the treatment of parkinsonism, painkillers, antitussive and antiemetics).
  2. Medicines that act primarily on the peripheral nervous system.
  3. Means acting in the field of sensitive nerve endings, that is, having a local anesthetic effect, such as novocaine, astringents, drugs that neutralize hydrochloric acid in the stomach, drugs with a "distracting" effect - menthol, validol, bee ointments or snake venom, laxatives and expectorants.
  4. Means acting on the cardiovascular system (cardiac glycosides, antiarrhythmic drugs, drugs that improve blood supply to individual organs and tissues, antispasmodics, blood pressure regulators).
  5. Means that enhance urination (otherwise - diuretics), and drugs that inhibit the formation of urinary stones.
  6. Drugs that improve liver function.
  7. Means that affect the muscles of the uterus (stimulating or relaxing).
  8. Drugs that regulate metabolic processes (hormones, their analogues and anti-hormonal drugs; vitamins; enzymes and their antagonists; drugs that affect blood coagulation, blood cholesterol; non-specific metabolic stimulants; drugs used to correct water-electrolyte balance and excretion toxic products).
  9. Drugs that affect immunity (immunomodulators and immunocorrectors).
  10. Antioxidants.
  11. Antimicrobial, antiviral, antiparasitic, antifungal agents (antibiotics, interferons, antiseptics and various synthetic drugs).
  12. Drugs used in the treatment of cancer (mainly substances that inhibit cell reproduction, as well as antagonists of certain hormones).
  13. Diagnostic tools (radiopaque substances, dyes).
  14. Other drugs of various pharmacological groups (sugars, sorbents, photoprotective drugs; drugs for the treatment of alcoholism; anti-appetite drugs).