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Groups of drugs

Группы лекарственных препаратов

All modern medicines are grouped according to the following basic principles:

  1. For therapeutic use (therapeutic groups): for example, drugs for the treatment of inflammation, lowering blood pressure, antimicrobials.
  2. Pharmacological action, that is, the effect caused (vasodilators - dilating blood vessels, antispasmodics - eliminating vasospasm, analgesics - reducing pain irritation).
  3. Chemical structure: for example, salicylates derived from acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, salicylamide, methyl salicylate), fluoroquinolones.
  4. The nosological principle, that is, some drugs used to treat a strictly defined disease (for example, drugs to treat myocardial infarction, asthma, etc.), others can be used to treat several diseases.

All drugs can be divided into the following groups:

  1. Drugs that act primarily on the central nervous system (anesthetics, hypnotics, anticonvulsants, tranquilizers and neuroleptics, antidepressants, psychostimulants, nootropic drugs, parkinsonian drugs, painkillers, antitussives and antiemetics).
  2. Drugs that act primarily on the peripheral nervous system.
  3. Means acting in the field of sensitive nerve endings, i.e., having a local anesthetic effect, such as, for example, novocaine, astringents, drugs that neutralize hydrochloric acid in the stomach, drugs with a "distracting" effect - menthol, validol, bee-based ointment or snake venom, laxatives and expectorants.
  4. Means acting on the cardiovascular system (cardiac glycosides, antiarrhythmic drugs, drugs that improve the blood supply to individual organs and tissues, antispasmodics, blood pressure regulators).
  5. Means that increase urination (otherwise - diuretics), and drugs that inhibit the formation of urinary stones.
  6. Drugs that improve the function of the liver.
  7. Means affecting the muscles of the uterus (stimulating or relaxing).
  8. Means regulating metabolic processes (hormones, their analogues and antihormonal drugs; vitamins; enzymes and their antagonists; drugs affecting blood clotting, blood cholesterol levels; nonspecific metabolic stimulants; drugs used to correct water and electrolyte balance and elimination toxic products).
  9. Drugs that affect the immune system (immunomodulators and immunomodulators).
  10. Antioxidants.
  11. Antimicrobial, antiviral, antiparasitic, antifungal agents (antibiotics, interferon, antiseptics and various synthetic drugs).
  12. Drugs used in the treatment of cancer (mainly substances that inhibit cell proliferation, as well as antagonists of certain hormones).
  13. Diagnostic tools (radiopaque substances, dyes).
  14. Other drugs of various pharmacological groups (sugar, sorbents, photoprotective drugs; drugs for the treatment of alcoholism; appetite suppressants).