Rupture of the meniscus of the knee
In the first hours and even a day after the injury, meniscus damage is masked by a bruise of the knee joint and hemarthrosis. The localization of pain at the level of the joint space, its intensification during movement, especially extension, make meniscus damage suspected. The main symptom is blockage of the knee joint in a bent position, caused by pinching of the damaged meniscus between the joint surfaces of the thigh and lower leg. The blockade is accompanied by sharp pain, soon an effusion appears in the joint cavity, after which the joint gap expands and the dislocated and restrained meniscus independently sets itself. In the future, infringements of the meniscus become more frequent, fatigue of the limb, instability in the knee joint, difficulty in descending from the stairs appears.
Recognition:The diagnosis is confirmed by x-ray examination of the joint with a contrast medium or air.
The treatment of meniscus rupture is surgical and consists in its removal. Cancer. A tumor developing from a integumentary or glandular epithelium.
It consists of connective tissue stroma with developed lymphatic and blood vessels and parenchyma of epithelial cells located in separate cells. If the stroma is small and mostly large cells, then such tumors are called brain cancer; in cases when large stroma speak of scirrhosis (scirr, fibrotic cancer), with the predominance of glandular cells - adenoarcinoma. Cancer occurs in all organs and tissues in which there are epithelial elements, most often in the stomach, lungs, uterus, mammary gland and skin.
Development begins with the atypical multiplication of epithelial cells that destroy their own connective membrane and form separate clusters of cancer cells and the growth of connective tissue stroma. Initially, the cancer is small, mobile (stage 1). Subsequently, it begins to grow into the thickness of the tissue or organ, causing disorders of its function, separate metastases in the lymph nodes appear (stage II). The tumor begins to grow into neighboring tissues, becomes inactive, metastases appear in regional lymph nodes (stage III). Rapid tumor growth is accompanied by necrosis and ulceration, which often cause bleeding. Separate metastases appear. The general condition of the patient deteriorates sharply, there is a decline in nutrition - cancer cachexia (stage IV).
Symptoms and course depend on the location and stage of cancer. Surgical or complex treatment in combination with radiation and hormone
therapy. The surgical method can be successfully applied in stages 1 and II of the disease. In stage III, surgical tactics are combined with other types of therapy (radiation).
In stage IV, a radical method is impossible. Palliative surgery is performed and symptomatic treatment is performed.