Knee meniscus tear
In the first hours and even days after injury, damage to the meniscus is masked by knee injury and hemarthrosis. Localization of pain at the level of the joint space, its strengthening during movement, especially extensions, makes one suspect damage to the meniscus. The main symptom is a blockade of the knee joint in a half-bent position, caused by the pinching of the damaged meniscus between the articular surfaces of the thigh and lower leg. The blockade is accompanied by sharp pain, soon there is effusion in the joint cavity, after which the joint gap widens and the dislocated and restrained meniscus automatically resets. In the future, meniscus injuries become more frequent, there is rapid fatigue of the limb, instability in the knee joint, difficulty in descending the stairs.
Recognition:The diagnosis is confirmed by radiographic examination of a joint with a contrast agent or air.
Treatment of a meniscus tear is operative and consists in its removal. Crayfish. A tumor that develops from the integumentary or glandular epithelium.
It consists of a connective tissue stroma with developed lymphatic and blood vessels and a parenchyma of epithelial cells located in separate cells. If the stroma is small and mostly large cells, then such tumors are called brain cancer; in cases where large stroma speaks of skirrose cancer (skirr, fibrous cancer), with the predominance of glandular cells - adenoarcinoma. Cancer occurs in all organs and tissues in which there are epithelial elements, most often in the stomach, lungs, uterus, in the mammary gland and on the skin.
Development begins with atypical reproduction of epithelial cells, which destroy their own connective membrane and form separate clusters of cancer cells and the growth of the connective tissue stroma. Initially, the cancer is small, mobile (stage 1). In the future, it begins to grow into the thickness of the tissue or organ, causing disorders of its function, separate metastases in the lymph nodes appear (stage II). The tumor begins to grow into the adjacent tissues, it becomes inactive, metastases appear in regional lymph nodes (III stages). The rapid growth of the tumor is accompanied by necrosis and ulceration, which often cause bleeding. Separate metastases appear. The general condition of the patient is deteriorating rapidly, there is a decline in nutrition - cancer cachexia (stage IV).
Symptoms and course depend on the location and stage of cancer development. Operational or complex treatment in combination with radiation and hormone
therapy. The surgical method can be successfully applied in stages 1 and II of the disease. In stage III, operational tactics are combined with other types of therapy (radiation therapy).
In stage IV, the radical method is impossible. Produce palliative surgery and symptomatic treatment.