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- substances of this series were obtained as a result of a systematic check of a huge number of soil samples for the content of microorganisms capable of producing antibiotics. Chemically, tetracycline - “base” is characterized by the fact that it contains a condensed four-cyclic (tetra) system in the molecule. Other drugs of this group have a similar structure. They turned out to be active not only against many cocci, but also against rickettsia, brucella, individual large viruses, as well as protozoa (amoeba, trichomonads). Thus, penicillin and many other antibiotics are superior in latitude. Tetracyclines after oral administration appear in the blood after 1 hour, then their concentration reaches a maximum level within 2-6 hours, after which it gradually decreases. They are distributed evenly in the body, but penetrate into the cerebrospinal fluid in relatively small quantities. Excreted in urine within 1224 hours, mostly unchanged. In severe septic conditions, tetracycline can be prescribed together with penicillin, streptomycin and other antibiotics. The highest dose for adults is a single dose - 0.5 g, daily - 2 g.
Tetracyclines are usually well tolerated, but can also cause side effects: decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, changes in the mucous membranes of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract (glossitis, stomatitis, gastritis). Skin sensitivity to sun exposure may increase. Long-term use during the period of tooth formation (prescription for children in the first months of life, as well as for women in the last 3 months of pregnancy) can cause dark yellow discoloration of the teeth. In the treatment with tetracycline, it is necessary to carefully monitor the patient's condition, with signs of hypersensitivity to it, take a break or switch to antibiotics of another group. To prevent side effects, the development of candidiasis (lesions of the skin and mucous membrane), it is recommended to use vitamins (Vitacycline tablets), antifungal agents (nystatin, levorin) at the same time, there are also special tablets containing tetracycline along with nystatin. Tetracycline is contraindicated in degenerative liver diseases, impaired renal function, caution is needed during pregnancy and hypersensitivity to it and related antibiotics.
Tetracycline ointment - used for skin diseases: acne, furunculosis, folliculitis, trophic ulcers, eczema, etc. Apply to the lesion 1-2 times a day or apply as a dressing for 12-24 hours. The duration of treatment is from several days to 2-3 weeks. In case of itching, burning, redness of the skin, treatment with ointment is stopped.