- substances of this series were obtained as a result of systematic testing of a huge number of soil samples for the content of microorganisms capable of producing antibiotics. Chemically, tetracycline - "base" is characterized by the fact that it contains a condensed four-cyclic (tetra) system in the molecule. Other drugs of this group have a similar structure. They turned out to be active not only in relation to many cocci, but also against rickettsiae, brucella, some major viruses, as well as the simplest (amoebae, trichomonads). Thus, penicillin and many other antibiotics are superior in latitude to the spectrum. After ingestion, tetracyclines appear in the blood after 1 hour, then their concentration reaches a maximum level within 2-6 hours, after which it gradually decreases. They are distributed evenly in the body, but they penetrate into the cerebrospinal fluid in relatively small amounts. Excreted in the urine within 1224 hours, mostly unchanged. In severe septic conditions, tetracycline can be administered together with penicillin, streptomycin and other antibiotics. The highest dose for adults a single - 0.5 g daily - 2 g.
Tetracyclines are usually well tolerated, but they can also cause side effects: loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, changes in the mucous membranes of the mouth and the gastrointestinal tract (glossitis, stomatitis, gastritis). Skin sensitivity to sunlight may increase. Prolonged use during the period of tooth formation (prescribed for children in the first months of life, as well as for women in the last 3 months of pregnancy) can cause dark-yellow teeth. When treating with tetracycline, it is necessary to carefully monitor the patient's condition, with signs of increased sensitivity to it, take a break or switch to another group of antibiotics. For the prevention of side effects, the development of candidiasis (damage to the skin and mucous membrane), it is recommended to use vitamins (Vititclin tablets), antifungal agents (nystatin, levorin) at the same time, there are also special pills containing tetracycline along with nystatin. Tetracycline is contraindicated in dystrophic liver diseases, impaired renal function, caution is needed during pregnancy and hypersensitivity to it and related antibiotics.
Tetracycline ointment - used for skin diseases: acne, furunculosis, folliculitis, trophic ulcers, eczema, etc. Applied to the lesion 1-2 times a day or used as a dressing for 12-24 hours. The duration of treatment from several days to 2-3 weeks. In the event of itching, burning, redness of the skin, ointment treatment is stopped.