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Substance abuse


- abuse of those substances that are not included in the list of drugs. These are various chemical, biological and medicinal substances that cause addiction and dependence. The following groups of narcotic and toxic substances are distinguished: 1. Morphine, opium and their semi-synthetic and synthetic analogues (heroin, codeine, promedol). 2. Cocaine and drugs from it ("crack"). 3. Substances extracted from Indian hemp (hashish, anasha, plan, marijuana). 4. Sleeping pills (barbiturates, Noxiron, Bromural). 5. Stimulants (caffeine, ephedrine, dope). 6. Tranquilizers. 7. Atropine and atropine-containing drugs (asthmatol, belladonna). 8. Non-narcotic analgesics (analgin, amidopirin, aspirin, paracetamol, etc.). 9. Organic solvents and household chemicals. 10. Nicotine.
There is no single reason for the development of drug addiction. Personal characteristics (infantilism, passivity, dependence, demonstrativeness, emotional instability) matter. Certain social factors play an important role: low level of education and professional qualifications, accompanied by a lack of interest in studies, work; lack of ideality and lack of spirituality; inability to occupy your leisure time; the influence of the surrounding microenvironment, unfavorable situation in the family, deficiencies in educational work; low level of medical and educational work. Drug addiction is a collective disease. If a drug addict enters the company, he can “infect” others as well. drug addicts seek to ensure that others tried the drug, also joined to this hobby. It's hard and leave the company of drug addicts, because they do not allow anyone to break out of their herd, pursue, in every possible way try to help return to anesthesia. Drug addiction is a disease of the young, because they simply do not live to old age. And they begin to use drugs more often in adolescence, the most susceptible to negative influence. Adolescence is a period of self-assertion, the rejection of generally accepted authorities, the choice of their own values, when the environment of comrades, the authority of the leader of "their group" exerts a special influence. The feeling of a kind of collectivism, the desire to keep up with peers, sometimes just curiosity and the desire to taste the forbidden fruit, idleness and boredom - these are some of the reasons for adolescents and young people to get used to drugs.
Symptoms and course:
The diagnosis of "drug addiction" is established only if a certain complex of clinical signs of the disease is present: 1) an irresistible desire to take drugs (addiction to them); 2) the tendency to increase the dose of the substance taken (increase tolerance); 3) mental and physical dependence on drugs.
Psychic dependence occurs in all cases of systematic use of drugs. Most often there is the so-called negative attachment, in which the drug is taken in order to get rid of bad health, stress and discomfort. Positive attachment is noted when the drug is used to obtain a pleasant effect (euphoria, feelings of cheerfulness, a surge of strength). Physical dependence means painful, painful sensations in the body, caused by the interruption of anesthesia.
Physical dependence is manifested in abstinence syndrome - drug abstinence syndrome, which usually occurs 12-48 hours after stopping the use of the drug. The addict cannot tolerate this state of suffering, and will try to get the drug by any means possible.
The clinical picture of morphinism is well known. It perfectly shows all stages of the development of drug addiction, from the initial manifestations to the outcome. Already with a single intake of opium or morphine, euphoria occurs (an elevated cloudless mood, everything appears in pink light, a feeling of warmth in the body), which is the reason for the further use of these substances. Opium addicts either inhale when smoking, adding to cigarettes, or use by mouth, or - in injections. Morphine and its analogues are used only in the form of subcutaneous and intravenous fluids. The dose of the drug taken is increasing rapidly. It is necessary, however, to bear in mind that with the abolition of the drug and the disappearance of withdrawal symptoms, the tolerance of this drug rapidly decreases, and the drug addict, returning to anesthesia, begins again with small doses, because the reception of the former large dose can cause in this case severe poisoning the outcome. Abstinence phenomena occur in 8-18 hours after the abolition of the drug. First there is drooling, tearfulness, yawning, sweating. Then the tremor, "goose" skin joins, the pupils dilate, the appetite disappears. 36 hours after the last drug intake, chills begin, blood pressure rises, heartbeat quickens, joints, nausea and vomiting appear. The tone of the muscles of the abdominal wall (abdomen, like a “board,” sometimes imitates the picture of an acute abdomen) increases, and cramps in the muscles of the limbs occur. The symptoms of dependence on the drug are most pronounced for 3-4 days, and they gradually subside by the end of the second week.
Being in such a state, the patient is agitated, aggressive, angry, demands drugs or tries to get them by any means (he even goes to the crime). Taking a certain dose of morphine or opium removes these phenomena, and it becomes easier for the patient for a while. First, drug addicts make 1 injection per day, then 2-3 injections.
In chronic intoxication with narcotic drugs, the appearance of drug addicts changes. There is a sharp weight loss, hair and nails become brittle, face puffy, skin dry with an earthy shade. Teeth affects caries. On the skin at the injection sites of the drug - traces of injections, scars, suppuration. Gradually changing character (personal degradation). Drug addicts are becoming increasingly rude, selfish, lose interest in work, do not fulfill family responsibilities. At first, they hide their addiction to drugs, and then begin to take them openly. To buy drugs, they sell things from home, commit thefts, and deceive people they know and love. Drug production becomes a life purpose.
Treatment:
It is carried out only in a specialized hospital. First of all, the patient is deprived of the drug, either immediately or gradually, depending on the duration of the disease and the size of the dose taken. Such drugs as morphine, opium, barbiturates are usually canceled, gradually reducing the dose. For relief of withdrawal symptoms, detoxification therapy is carried out, psychotropic drugs (neuroleptics, tranquilizers), nootropil, pyroxan are used. It needs medical nutrition, vitamin therapy. If the patient feels well during the period of withdrawal, then there is reason to suspect him of covert drug use. Psychotherapy, labor and social rehabilitation are needed. First of all, we should abandon the collective of drug addicts, radically change our attitudes. It is very difficult, because the "friends" do not give rest. Sometimes it is necessary to change the place of residence, change jobs, profession. Drug treatment is a long process. After a hospital stay of at least 2 months, a further long-term outpatient maintenance therapy is required. Only the desire to get rid of the disease and installation on a healthy lifestyle can lead to a favorable outcome.