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Substance abuse


- abuse of substances that are not on the list of drugs. These are various chemical, biological and medicinal substances that are addictive and addictive. The following groups of narcotic and toxic substances are distinguished: 1. Morphine, opium and their semi-synthetic and synthetic analogues (heroin, codeine, promedol). 2. Cocaine and drugs from it ("crack"). 3. Substances extracted from Indian hemp (hash, anasha, plan, marijuana). 4. Hypnotics (barbiturates, noxiron, bromural). 5. Stimulants (caffeine, ephedrine, doping). 6. Tranquilizers. 7. Atropine and atropine-containing drugs (astmatol, belladonna). 8. Non-narcotic analgesics (analgin, amidopyrine, aspirin, paracetamol, etc.). 9. Organic solvents and household cleaning products. 10. Nicotine.
There is no single reason for the development of drug addiction. Personal characteristics (infantilism, passivity, dependence, demonstrativeness, emotional instability) are important. An important role is played by certain social factors: a low level of education and professional qualifications, accompanied by a lack of interest in studying and working; lack of spirituality and lack of spirituality; inability to take their leisure time; the influence of the surrounding microenvironment, unfavorable conditions in the family, deficiencies in educational work; low level of medical education. Addiction is a collective disease. If the addict gets into the company, he can “infect” others, as drug addicts are trying to ensure that others try the drug, too, become involved in this hobby. It’s hard to leave the company of drug addicts as well. they do not allow anyone to get out of their herd, they persecute, in every possible way try to help return to anesthesia. Addiction is a disease of young people, because they simply do not live to old age. And they begin to use drugs more often in adolescence, most exposed to negative influences. Adolescence is a period of self-affirmation, the rejection of generally accepted authorities, the choice of one’s own values, when the environment of comrades and the authority of the leader of “their group” have a special influence. The feeling of a peculiar collectivism, the desire to keep up with peers, sometimes just curiosity and the desire to taste the forbidden fruit, idleness and boredom - these are some of the reasons for teenagers and young people to become involved in drugs.
Symptoms and course:
The diagnosis of "addiction" is established only if there is a certain complex of clinical signs of the disease: 1) an irresistible attraction to drug use (addiction to them); 2) a tendency to increase the dose of the substance taken (increased tolerance); 3) mental and physical dependence on drugs.
Mental dependence arises in all cases of systematic use of narcotic substances. Most often, the so-called negative attachment is observed, in which the drug is taken in order to get rid of poor health, tension and discomfort. Positive attachment is noted when the drug is used to obtain a pleasant effect (euphoria, feeling of vigor, surge of strength). Physical dependence means painful, painful sensations in the body caused by interruption of anesthesia.
Physical dependence is manifested in withdrawal symptoms - drug abstinence syndrome, which usually occurs 12-48 hours after stopping the drug. The addict cannot endure this condition, which causes him suffering, and will try to get the drug by any means.
The clinical picture of morphinism is well known. She perfectly shows all stages of drug addiction development, from initial manifestations to the outcome. Already with a single dose of opium or morphine, there is euphoria (increased cloudless mood, everything appears in pink, a feeling of warmth in the body), which is the reason for the further use of these substances. Opium addicts are either inhaled while smoking, added to cigarettes, or ingested, or injected. Morphine and its analogues are used only in the form of subcutaneous and intravenous infusions. The dose of the drug is increasing rapidly. However, it must be borne in mind that when the drug is withdrawn and withdrawal symptoms disappear, the tolerance of this drug quickly decreases, and the addict, returning to anesthesia, starts again with small doses, because taking the previous high dose can cause severe poisoning up to death the outcome. Phenomenon withdrawal symptoms occur 8-18 hours after drug withdrawal. First, salivation, tearfulness, yawning, sweating. Then tremor joins, "goose" skin, pupils dilate, appetite disappears. 36 hours after the last dose of the drug, chills begin, blood pressure rises, palpitations increase, joint aches, nausea and vomiting appear. The tone of the muscles of the abdominal wall increases (the abdomen, like a “board", sometimes imitates the picture of an acute abdomen), muscle cramps of the extremities occur. The symptoms of drug dependence are most pronounced for 3-4 days, and they gradually subside by the end of the second week.
Being in this condition, the patient is agitated, aggressive, angry, requires drugs or tries to get them by any means (even a crime). Taking a certain dose of morphine or opium removes these phenomena, and it becomes easier for the patient for a while. First, addicts make 1 injection per day, then 2-3 infusions.
With chronic intoxication with drugs, the appearance of drug addicts changes. A sharp weight loss is noted, hair and nails become brittle, the face is puffy, the skin is dry with an earthy tint. The teeth are affected by caries. On the skin in places of drug infusion - traces of injections, scars, suppuration. Gradually changing character (personality degradation). Addicts are becoming more and more rude, selfish, lose interest in work, do not fulfill family responsibilities. At first, they hide their addiction to drugs, and then begin to take them openly. To buy drugs, they sell things from home, commit thefts, and deceive relatives and friends. Drug production becomes a goal in life.
Treatment:
It is carried out only in a specialized hospital. First of all, the patient is deprived of the drug, either immediately or gradually, depending on the duration of the disease and the size of the dose taken. Drugs such as morphine, opium, barbiturates are usually canceled, gradually reducing the dose. For the relief of withdrawal symptoms, detoxification therapy is carried out, psychotropic drugs (antipsychotics, tranquilizers), nootropil, pyroxan are used. Necessary medical nutrition, vitamin therapy. If the patient feels well during the period of withdrawal, then there is reason to suspect him of covert drug use. Psychotherapy, labor and social rehabilitation are needed. First of all, you should abandon the team of drug addicts, radically change your attitudes. This is very difficult, because the "buddies" haunt. Sometimes you need to change your place of residence, change your job, profession. Treatment for drug addiction is a long process. After staying in the hospital for at least 2 months, an additional long-term outpatient maintenance therapy is required. Only the desire to get rid of the disease and the installation on a healthy lifestyle can lead to a favorable outcome.