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Tuberculosis


Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease in which all organs are affected, but most often the lungs. It continues to be a fairly common phenomenon: every year about 3 million people in the world die from it, as many get sick again. The causative agent is discovered by a German scientist in 1882 and named after his name - Koch wand from the family of radiant fungi. Their three types: human usually cause respiratory tuberculosis, bovine - extrapulmonary forms, avian forms are extremely rare. They penetrate into the organism mainly by the aerogenic method, i.e. when inhalation with air of the smallest droplets or particles of dried sputum containing bacteria, less often through the intestines when eating milk, meat, eggs from sick animals and birds. Infection is also transmitted through objects if they are shared with sickly dishes, towels, etc.
Infection does not always cause a clinically pronounced disease of primary tuberculosis: the vast majority of people have inborn resistance to it and the immunity acquired by vaccination and revaccination of BCG. However, infection and for them does not pass completely without a trace: in the lungs and lymph nodes multiple small tuberculosis foci are formed, which confirms a positive reaction to the Pirka and Mantoux tests, the temperature rises somewhat, the blood picture changes. But such a condition, especially when infected with a small number of active mycobacteria, is of a transient nature: the physiological norm is restored, and, as a rule, the healing of tuberculosis foci occurs - their cleansing, calcification, scarring or complete resorption. Unfortunately, the bacteria themselves do not always die in them. Rather, they only “fall asleep”, sometimes for a very long time, as if patiently waiting in the wings. When the body weakens under the influence of adverse factors - poor nutrition, harmful working conditions, etc., they awaken and begin to multiply rapidly: inflammation melts the protective capsule around the old, conserved lesions, and Koch sticks spread through the circulatory and lymphatic systems. This causes secondary tuberculosis, but sometimes as a result of repeated external infection.
Localization distinguishes pulmonary tuberculosis (83-88%) and extrapulmonary (12-17%). All forms cause in various degrees pronounced dysfunction of the nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular systems, liver, gastrointestinal tract. The course and outcome of the disease is largely dependent on the immune state of the body as a whole.






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