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Tuberculosis


Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease in which all organs, but most often the lungs, are affected. It continues to be quite common: annually about 3 million people in the world die from it, the same number fall ill again. The causative agent is discovered by a German scientist in 1882 and named after him - Koch's wand from the family of radiant fungi. They are of three types: human usually cause respiratory tuberculosis, bovine - extrapulmonary forms, avian are extremely rare. Penetrate the body mainly by the aerogenic method, i.e. when inhaling the smallest droplets or particles of dried sputum containing bacteria, less often through the intestines when eating milk, meat, eggs from sick animals and birds. The infection is also transmitted through objects if they use shared dishes, towels, etc.
Infection does not always cause a clinically expressed disease of primary tuberculosis: in the vast majority of people, innate resistance and immunity acquired through vaccination and revaccination of BCG are associated with it. However, infection for them does not go completely without a trace: in the lungs and lymph nodes, numerous small tuberculous foci form, which confirms a positive reaction to Pirke and Mantoux tests, the temperature rises slightly, and the blood picture changes. But this condition, especially when infected with a small amount of active mycobacteria, is transient in nature: the physiological norm is restored, and, as a rule, tuberculous foci are healed - their deposition, calcification, scarring or complete resorption. Unfortunately, the bacteria themselves do not always die in them. They probably only "fall asleep", sometimes for a very long time, as if patiently waiting for their time. When the body weakens under the influence of unfavorable factors - poor nutrition, harmful working conditions, etc., they awaken and begin to multiply rapidly: inflammation melts the protective capsule around old, preserved foci, and Koch's rods spread through the circulatory and lymphatic systems. So secondary tuberculosis occurs, but sometimes as a result of repeated external infection.
Localization distinguishes pulmonary tuberculosis (83-88%) and extrapulmonary (12-17%). All forms cause to varying degrees pronounced dysfunctions of the nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular systems, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. The course and outcome of the disease largely depends on the immune state of the organism as a whole.






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