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Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease in which all organs are affected, but more often the lungs. It continues to be quite a common phenomenon: annually about 3 million people in the world die from it, as many again fall ill. The causative agent is discovered by a German scientist in 1882 and named after him Koch's stick from the family of radiant fungi. Their three types: the human are usually caused by tuberculosis of the respiratory organs, bovine - extrapulmonary forms, avian active very rarely. Penetrated into the body mainly by the aerogenic method, i.e. When inhaled with air, small droplets or particles of dried phlegm containing bacteria, less often through the intestine when eating milk, meat, eggs from sick animals and birds. Infection is transmitted through objects, if they share with the sick dishes, towels, etc.
Infection does not always cause a clinically pronounced disease with primary tuberculosis: the overwhelming majority of people have congenital resistance and immunity acquired by vaccination and revaccination of BCG. However, the infection for them does not pass completely without a trace: in the lungs and lymph nodes multiple small tuberculous foci are formed, which confirms a positive reaction to the Pirke and Mantoux probes, the temperature rises slightly, the blood picture changes. But this condition, especially when infected with a small number of active mycobacteria, has a transient character: the physiological norm is restored, and as a rule, the healing of tuberculosis foci occurs - their felting, calcification, scarring or complete resorption. Unfortunately, bacteria do not always die in them. They rather just "fall asleep," sometimes for a very long time, as if patiently waiting for their hour. When the body weakens under the influence of unfavorable factors - poor nutrition, harmful working conditions, etc., they awaken and begin to multiply rapidly: the inflammation melts the protective capsule around the old, preserved foci, and Koch's rods spread through the circulatory and lymphatic systems. So there is a secondary tuberculosis, but sometimes as a result of repeated external infection.
Localization distinguishes pulmonary tuberculosis (83-88%) and extrapulmonary (12-17%). All forms cause in various degrees pronounced disorders of the function of the nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular systems, liver, gastrointestinal tract. The course and outcome of the disease largely depend on the immune state of the body as a whole.

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