This page has been robot translated, sorry for typos if any. Original content here.

Laryngeal paresis and paralysis

Laryngeal paresis and paralysis occur due to inflammatory and degenerative processes in the muscles or dysfunction of the innervating larynx of nerves, brain centers and pathways.

Myopathic paresis or paralysis is caused by changes in the muscles of the larynx and is observed in acute and chronic laryngitis, some common infectious diseases (diphtheria, typhoid, flu, tuberculosis), with hemorrhage in the muscles of the larynx as a result of a sharp overstrain of the voice. As a rule, they are bilateral with a lesion most often of the vocal muscles of the larynx. Neuropathic paresis or paralysis can be of peripheral or central origin. Central paresis or paralysis more often occurs with bulbar stool lesions and hysteria. Peripheral paresis or paralysis depends on dysfunction of the branches of the vagus nerve. The cause of the dysfunction of these nerves may be trauma, various inflammatory, tumor and other pathological processes in the neck and chest.

Symptoms, course. Hoarseness up to aphonia. Of great practical importance is the paralysis of the posterior cricoid muscle (the muscle that takes the vocal fold outward and thereby opens the glottis). With acute onset bilateral paralysis of these muscles, the glottis does not open, stenosis of the larynx occurs, requiring urgent tracheostomy. In case of violation of the function of other muscles of the larynx, complaints of patients are reduced to a change in the nature of the voice. The diagnosis is made using laryngoscopy. By the type of gap remaining between the vocal folds during phonation, it is possible to identify which muscle function is impaired.

Treatment for myopathic paresis or paralysis of the larynx of inflammatory etiology is the same as for acute catarrhal laryngitis. In addition, physiotherapy is used: electrophoresis, diathermy. With neuropathic paresis or paralysis of the larynx, the treatment of a disease that caused a violation of the innervation of the larynx is indicated.