Antioxidants in Food
Antioxidants (antioxidants, preservatives) - oxidation inhibitors, natural or synthetic substances that can slow down oxidation. Considered primarily in the context of the oxidation of organic compounds.
The most well-known antioxidants are ascorbic acid (vitamin C), tocopherol (vitamin E), B-carotene (provitamin A), and lycopene (in tomatoes). These also include polyphenols: flavin and flavonoids (often found in vegetables), tannins (in cocoa, coffee, tea), anthocyanins (in red berries).
S. V. Okovity (2009) proposes the following classification of antioxidants:
- Anti-radical remedies
- Endogenous compounds: a-Tocopherol (vitamin E), B-carotene (provitamin A), retinol (vitamin A), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), glutathione reduced (tathionyl), a-lipoic acid (thioctacid), carnosine, ubiquinone ( kudesan)
- Synthetic drugs: ionol (dibunol), thiophane, acetylcysteine (ACC), probucol (fenbutol), succinobucol (AGI-1067), dimethyl sulfoxide (dimexide), tirilazad mesylate (fridox), emoxipin, olifen (hypoxene, aprone, aprone, axiroxane, axiol, adoxidin, mesylate (fridox), emoxipin, olifen (hypoxene), syringes; ), ceroviv (NXY-059)
- Antioxidant enzymes and their activators
- Superoxide dismutase preparations: erisod, orgotein (peroxinorm)
- Ceruloplasmin Ferroxidase Preparations: Ceruloplasmin
- Activators of antioxidant enzymes: Sodium selenite (selenase)
- Free radical formation blockers: allopurinol / milurite, oxypurinol, antihypoxants
Antioxidants are found in large quantities in prunes, fresh berries and fruits, as well as freshly squeezed juices, fruit drinks, mashed potatoes. The berries and fruits rich in antioxidants include sea buckthorn, blueberries, grapes, cranberries, mountain ash, black chokeberry, currants, pomegranates, mangosteen, acai.
Nuts and some vegetables are rich in antioxidants (beans, kale, artichokes), and in the second case, excess antioxidants can prevent the body from assimilating iron, zinc, calcium and other trace elements.
Other antioxidant products include cocoa, red wine, green tea and, to a lesser extent, black tea.
The oxidation of hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, fats and other substances with free oxygen is a chain process. Chain reactions of transformations are carried out with the participation of active free radicals - peroxide (RO2 *), alkoxy (RO *), alkyl (R *), and also active oxygen forms (superoxide anion, singlet oxygen). Chain branched oxidation reactions are characterized by an increase in the rate during transformation (autocatalysis). This is due to the formation of free radicals during the decomposition of intermediate products - hydroperoxides, etc.
The mechanism of action of the most common antioxidants (aromatic amines, phenols, naphthols, etc.) is to break the reaction chains: the antioxidant molecules interact with active radicals to form low-active radicals. Oxidation is also slowed down in the presence of substances that destroy hydroperoxides (dialkyl sulfides, etc.). In this case, the rate of formation of free radicals falls. Even in a small amount (0.01–0.001%), antioxidants reduce the oxidation rate, therefore, over a period of time (the period of inhibition, induction) oxidation products are not detected. In the practice of inhibition of oxidative processes, the phenomenon of synergism is of great importance - the mutual enhancement of the effectiveness of antioxidants in a mixture or in the presence of other substances.
Below we provide summary tables of the content of antioxidants in food.
Recall that antioxidants neutralize free radicals, which, in turn, are one of the main causes of aging and many degenerative diseases.
Plants are forced to exist in such environmental conditions from which they need to protect themselves.
To protect them, they produce various protective substances, including antioxidants, antioxidants.
By consuming these plants for food, we also protect our body from free radicals and their oxidation.
Studies of the presence of antioxidants in food were carried out at Boston University in the United States.
Two tables are given, since different methods were used to measure antioxidants in products.
We need to pay attention to the fact that with an equal amount of antioxidants we usually eat a different amount of each product.
For example, in a certain spice there can be as many antioxidants as there are in beans, but it is obvious that we can eat much more beans, therefore, we must give advantage to it.
In addition, it is important to look at calorie foods.
For example, the amount of antioxidants in prunes is one of the biggest, but its caloric content is high - it is better for them not to abuse much and eat not in addition to other products, but instead of sweets, buns, etc.
Summary table of antioxidants in food
|PRODUCT||ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY / GRAM|
|FIVE BEST BERRIES AND FRUITS:|
|Blueberry (wild plant)||92.60|
|Plum (type not specified)||62.39|
|FIVE BEST VEGETABLES:|
|Little Red Beans||149.21|
|Plain red beans||144.13|
|Beans (color not defined)||123.59|
|FIVE BEST NUTS:|
|FIVE BEST SPICES|
Antioxidants in the top 10 products of antioxidant units per 100 grams