Antioxidants in Food
Antioxidants (antioxidants, preservatives) - oxidation inhibitors, natural or synthetic substances that can slow down oxidation. Considered primarily in the context of the oxidation of organic compounds.
The most famous antioxidants are: ascorbic acid (vitamin C), tocopherol (vitamin E), B-carotene (provitamin A) and lycopene (in tomatoes). They also include polyphenols: flavin and flavonoids (often found in vegetables), tannins (in cocoa, coffee, tea), anthocyanins (in red berries).
S.V. Okovitiy (2009) offers the following classification of antioxidants:
- Endogenous compounds: a-Tocopherol (vitamin E), B-carotene (provitamin A), retinol (vitamin A), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), reduced glutathione (tationion), a-lipoic acid (thioctacid), carnosine, ubiquinone ( Kudesan)
- Synthetic preparations: ionol (dibunol), thiophan, acetylcysteine (ACC), probucol (fenbutol), succinobucol (AGI-1067), dimethyl sulfoxide (dimexide), tirilazad mesylate (fridox), emoxipine, oliphene (hypoxenochrome-echino, echino) ) tseroviv (NXY-059)
- Antioxidant enzymes and their activators
- Superoxide dismutase preparations: erisod, orgotein (peroxinorm)
- Ceruloplasmin ferroxidase preparations: ceruloplasmin
- Antioxidant Enzyme Activators: Sodium Selenite (Selenase)
- Free radical blockers: allopurinol / milurite, oxypurinol, antihypoxants
Antioxidants are found in large quantities in prunes, fresh berries and fruits, as well as freshly squeezed juices, fruit drinks, and mashed potatoes. Berries and fruits rich in antioxidants include sea buckthorn, blueberries, grapes, cranberries, mountain ash, chokeberry, currant, pomegranates, mangosteen, acai.
Nuts and some vegetables (beans, kale, artichokes) are rich in antioxidants, and in the second case, excess antioxidants can interfere with the body's absorption of iron, zinc, calcium and other trace elements.
Other antioxidant products include cocoa, red wine, green tea, and to a lesser extent black tea.
The oxidation of hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, fats and other substances by free oxygen is a chain process. The chain reactions of transformations are carried out with the participation of active free radicals - peroxide (RO2 *), alkoxyl (RO *), alkyl (R *), as well as reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion, singlet oxygen). Branched chain oxidation reactions are characterized by an increase in rate during the conversion (autocatalysis). This is due to the formation of free radicals during the decomposition of intermediate products - hydroperoxides, etc.
The mechanism of action of the most common antioxidants (aromatic amines, phenols, naphthols, etc.) consists in breaking the reaction chains: antioxidant molecules interact with active radicals to form low-activity radicals. Oxidation also slows down in the presence of substances that destroy hydroperoxides (dialkyl sulfides and others). In this case, the rate of formation of free radicals decreases. Even in a small amount (0.01-0.001%), antioxidants reduce the rate of oxidation, therefore, for some period of time (the period of inhibition, induction), oxidation products are not detected. In the practice of inhibition of oxidative processes, the phenomenon of synergy is of great importance - the mutual strengthening of the effectiveness of antioxidants in a mixture, or in the presence of other substances.
Below we provide summary tables of antioxidant content in food.
Recall that antioxidants neutralize free radicals, which, in turn, are one of the main causes of aging and many degenerative diseases.
Plants are forced to exist in environmental conditions from which they need to protect themselves.
For protection, they also produce various protective substances, including antioxidants, antioxidants.
By consuming these plants as food, we also protect our bodies from free radicals and the acidification caused by them.
Studies on the presence of antioxidants in foods were conducted at Boston University in the United States.
Two tables are given because different methods were used to measure antioxidants in the products.
We need to pay attention to the fact that with an equal amount of antioxidants, we usually eat a different amount of each product.
For example, in a certain spice there can be as many antioxidants as there are in beans, but it is obvious that we can eat much more beans, therefore we must give it an advantage.
In addition, it is important to look at the calorie content of foods.
For example, the amount of antioxidants in prunes is one of the largest, but its calorie content is high - it is better not to abuse it too much and not in addition to other products, but instead of sweets, rolls, etc.
Summary table of antioxidant content in food
|PRODUCT||ANTIOXIDANT ABILITY / GRAM|
|FIVE BEST BERRIES AND FRUITS:|
|Blueberries (wild plants)||92.60|
|Plum (type not specified)||62.39|
|FIVE BEST VEGETABLES:|
|Little Red Beans||149.21|
|Plain red bean||144.13|
|Beans (color not determined)||123.59|
|FIVE BEST NUTS:|
|FIVE BEST SPECIES:|
Antioxidants in the top 10 products of antioxidant units per 100 grams
|Wild strawberry||1,540||Broccoli (flowers)||890|