Syringe (German: Spritze, from spritzen - spray) - the general name of the instruments used in medicine, technology and cooking for the introduction and removal of liquids and gases using piston pressure.
Today, syringes are used for intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous and other types of injections, as well as for rinsing cavities, aspirating fluids and injecting nutrients.
Syringe - a medical instrument designed for injection, diagnostic punctures, suction of pathological contents from cavities.
Principle of operation
When the syringe piston is lifted, if its needle is placed in a vessel with liquid, a vacuum is created between it and the surface. There liquid flows from the vessel, since atmospheric pressure acts on it.
Typically, the syringe is a hollow graduated cylinder with a cone on which the needle is mounted, and an open end through which a piston with a rod is inserted into the cylinder. In the 1980s, disposable syringes (SHOP, colloquially: disposable syringes), almost entirely made of plastic, were widely used, with the exception of the needle, which is still made of stainless steel. The syringe also has a large number of slang names on the slang of drug addicts. Syringe tubes (English) are also used for a single injection of drugs.
Since the syringe is in contact with blood during use, attention should be paid to the sterility of the syringe:
- before using a disposable syringe, make sure the integrity of the package;
- reusable syringes are boiled thoroughly before use.
For the injection, the syringe needle is placed in a container with the drug, after which the necessary amount of the drug is drawn into the syringe barrel by the movement of the piston. Before the injection, make sure that there are no air bubbles in the preparation drawn into the syringe. To do this, the syringe is directed with the needle up and with a slight movement of the piston, air is expelled from the syringe along with part of the drug. The skin at the injection site must be wiped with alcohol. Subsequently, depending on the type of injection, the needle is injected into the patient's vein, under the skin, either inside the skin or inside the muscle, after which the medicine moves from the syringe into the patient’s body by moving the piston.
Types of Disposable Syringes
|1 ml (insulin / tuberculin)|| 0.45 x 10 mm 26Gx2 / 5
0.40 x 10 mm 27Gx1 / 2
|2 ml||0.6 x 30 mm 23Gx1 1/4|
|3 ml||0.6 x 30 mm 23Gx1 1/4|
|5 ml||0.7 x 40 mm 22Gx1 1/2|
|10 ml||0.8 x 40 mm 21Gx1 1/2|
|20 ml||0.8 x 40 mm 21Gx1 1/2|
|50 ml||1.2 x 40 mm 18Gx1 1/2|
|150 ml (Janet syringe)||1.2 x 400 mm 80G x 1 1/20|
History of creation
Despite the fact that intravenous injections were carried out from the middle of the 17th century, the syringe, in the form in which we know it now, was invented only in 1853 by veterinarian Charles Gabriel Pravaz and Alexander Wood independently apart from each other.
The first syringes were made of a rubber cylinder, inside of which was placed a well-fitted piston made of leather and asbestos with a metal pin sticking out. A hollow needle was attached to the other end of the cylinder. Since the cylinder was opaque, notches for the dosage of the medicine were made not on it, but on the metal piston pin.
In 1949-1950, Arthur Smith received US patents for disposable syringes.
The first disposable syringes began to be mass-produced by Becton, Dickinson and Company in 1954. These syringes were made of glass.
In 1956, Colin Murdoch, a pharmacist from New Zealand, invented and patented a plastic disposable syringe.
Currently, many inventors are working on the implementation of the idea of truly disposable syringes - that is, those that would simply be physically impossible to use twice. This objective is due to the fight against the spread of HIV and other infections. Some inventors have already achieved certain successes and even received patents for them, but there is no really reliable and economical solution to this problem. In some countries, charitable syringe exchange organizations operate to reduce the spread of HIV among drug addicts, who often use the same syringe several times.
Despite the fact that the history of the creation of the syringe dates back to the middle of the 19th century, mankind has long used the most diverse methods for introducing and removing fluids from the body. So 2.5 thousand years ago, the famous Hippocrates used a hollow tube to which a pig’s bladder was attached. In the XVII century, many scientists and doctors attempted intravenous and subcutaneous injections, as well as transfusions using a bird feather.
In general, the construction of the press, that is, the cylinder, piston and needle, was invented by the French physicist and mathematician Pascal in 1648. It is called Pascal's injector. But, unfortunately, the public of that time did not appreciate this development, and the invention was forgotten. Only in the middle of the XIX century, Dr. Alexander Wood, taking the injector as a basis, constructed a syringe for injecting drugs under the skin. At the same time, surgeon Charles Gabriel Pravoz created a similar device of a larger volume for use during operations.
The first syringes in history were made of leather and rubber, and notches for dosing were made on a metal piston. Luer glass reusable syringes appeared in 1894. At the heart of their design was the idea of a Fournier glass blower. Syringes were available in volumes from 2 to 100 ml, had a conical connection of the needle with the cylinder of the syringe and were made of chemically and thermally resistant glass, which made it possible to successfully sterilize them using different methods.
The history of the creation of disposable syringes began with the development of the American Arthur Smith, who in 1949 patented the first glass disposable syringe. And just seven years later, New Zealand pharmacist Colin Mardock invented a plastic disposable syringe. In subsequent years, he was actively involved in the refinement and patenting of his invention, and by the 70s of the twentieth century, Mardok had a patent for a disposable plastic syringe in all countries of the world. And their industrial production has been established since 1961.
Currently, the development is carried out in two directions: firstly, the creation of syringes, which in principle can not be used twice, but so far there are no clear results, and secondly, a decrease in the pain of injections. For example, barbed needles with a smaller area of contact with the skin, devices sticking needles at high speeds, and a method for freezing needles before injection have been developed.
The last qualitative leap in design is the replacement of two-component disposable syringes with three-component ones. all things in a small rubber band around the piston. She greatly reduced the pressure force, and resp. pain The last picture is just 3-component. And the needles have long been so sharp that there is no problem in their further modernization - with the correct injection technique, it is not felt at all.