What is Menstruation and How to use a tampon?
Menstruation (from Lat. Mensis - month, menstruus - monthly), monthly or regula - part of the menstrual cycle of women and females of some placental mammals (primates evolutionarily close to humans, bats and jumpers).
During menstruation, the functional layer of the endometrium (uterine mucosa) is rejected, accompanied by bleeding. From the first day of menstruation, the menstrual cycle begins.
Menstrual blood does not clot and has a darker color than the blood circulating in the vessels. This is due to the presence of a set of enzymes in the menstrual blood.
Menstruation (and menstrual cycles in general) do not occur during pregnancy and lactation; the absence of menstruation at the expected time is a common symptom, allowing to suspect the presence of pregnancy.
Menstruation usually occurs every month, but there are also non-standard periods of menstruation. Before puberty, during pregnancy and immediately after childbirth, there is no menstruation in menopause. The discharge immediately after birth is called lochia and continues for several weeks. Sometimes during breastfeeding, menstruation may be absent for a while, and in this absence of menstruation, such a method of protection from pregnancy as the method of lactational amenorrhea is built.
The first appearance of menstruation (menarche) in a woman occurs at 12-14 years on average; (with a range of 9-11 years to 19-21 years). Menstruation in a hot climate shows between 11 and 15 years of age; in moderate - between 12 and 18 years and in the cold - between 13 and 21 years of life. Good nutrition and physical condition accelerate the onset of the menstrual period; and vice versa, malnutrition, excessive work and poor physical condition slow down its appearance. The age of menarche reveals certain racial differences: for example, in a number of studies it was shown that menarche occurs in Negroids earlier than in Europeans living in the same socio-economic conditions.
After the first menstruation, the next one may be after 2 or 3 months. Over time, the menstrual cycle is established and lasts 28 days, but the cycle time from 21 to 35 days is normal. Only 13% of all women have a cycle of exactly 28 days. Menstruation lasts about 2-8 days. All discharge comes from the vagina, but there may be cases of endometrial cells entering other parts of the body, then the bleeding will go from them.
Menstrual blood is called liquid vaginal discharge during menstruation. Strictly speaking, the more correct term is the menstrual fluid, since its composition, besides the blood itself, includes the mucous secretion of the cervical glands, the secret of the vaginal glands and the tissue of the endometrium. The average volume of menstrual fluid released during one menstrual cycle is about 35 milliliters. However, the individual variation ranges from 10 to 80 milliliters; this range is considered normal, more abundant (or, conversely, scanty) discharge may be a symptom of the disease. Menstrual fluid has a reddish brown color, slightly darker than venous blood.
The amount of iron lost with menstrual blood is relatively small for most women and cannot by itself cause the symptoms of anemia. In one study, a group of women with symptoms of anemia were examined with an endoscope. It turned out that 86% of them actually suffered from various gastrointestinal diseases (such as gastritis or duodenal ulcers, which cause bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract); this diagnosis may not have been made due to the erroneous attribution of iron deficiency to menstrual blood loss. However, regularly heavy menstrual bleeding in some cases still can lead to anemia.
General rules of hygiene during menstruation
For the maintenance of personal hygiene, adolescent girls and women use pads attached to their underwear and / or tampons inserted into the vagina. In both cases, the pad or tampon tissue absorbs menstrual flow. In European countries, the USA and Canada, menstrual cups are becoming increasingly popular as personal hygiene products, which are considered to be healthier and less harmful to the environment for women than traditional products.
During menstruation, it is especially necessary to follow the rules of hygiene (daily douche, rinsing 2-3 times a day) due to the fact that bleeding menstrual flow is a favorable medium for the reproduction of bacteria, including pathogens. Also, you can not use physical activity, you need mental peace.
Medicine is not recommended full dipping, and baths (both in fresh and salt water), it is recommended to use a shower for swimming. Alcohol and spicy foods are contraindicated, as the latter intensify uterine bleeding due to the rush of blood to the abdominal organs.
Sexual intercourse during menstruation
During menstruation, a woman experiences great physical discomfort. Elevated hormonal levels create emotional tension, irritation. The uterus during this period is very vulnerable to various kinds of infections. Therefore, during the period of menstruation sex life should be terminated.
Use of tampons
When can I start using tampons?
There are no age restrictions. You can use tampons with the onset of the first menstruation. Start with the smallest and gradually choose the most convenient size for yourself.
Will they damage the hymen?
The size and location of the tampon in your body absolutely exclude the possibility of damage to the hymen. The chaff itself is a thin film covering the vagina, with a hole of small diameter. The correctly inserted tampon is located in the second third of your vagina and does not touch the film at all. In addition, the hymen is very elastic, and on “such” days it becomes even more pliable. So you can not worry.
Does the size of a tampon depend on height and weight?
No, it does not. The size of the tampon should depend only on the amount of discharge. There is no connection either with the size of the internal organs or with the size of the girl.
Can a tampon get lost inside me?
The tampon can not "get lost." He has absolutely nowhere to go. Moreover, in modern tampons, the string is sewn so that it just can not come off. If you are unable to immediately remove the tampon, then either he has not yet had time to absorb enough discharge, or you are too tense muscles. Relax and try it again.
How often do I need to change tampons?
As needed, about once every 4 hours. But never leave a tampon in your body for longer than 8 hours.
Can I swim and take a shower without taking out a tampon?
Of course. One of the indisputable advantages of tampons is the fact that you can swim and feel as comfortable as possible with them. Only it is better to replace the tampon immediately after bathing.
What is a tampon with an applicator for?
The applicator contributes to the hygienic introduction and proper positioning of the tampon in the body. By inserting a tampon with an applicator, you do not touch it with your hands. It helps to correctly position the tampon inside exactly at the depth it needs.