What is Menstruation and How to use a tampon?
Menstruation (from Latin mensis - month, menstruus - monthly), menstrual or regular - part of the menstrual cycle of the body of women and females of some placental mammals (evolutionarily close to humans, primates, bats and jumpers).
When menstruation occurs rejection of the functional layer of the endometrium (mucous membrane of the uterus), accompanied by bleeding. From the first day of menstruation, the menstrual cycle begins.
Menstrual blood does not fold and has a darker color than the blood circulating in the vessels. This is due to the presence of a set of enzymes in the menstrual blood.
Menstruation (and generally menstrual cycles) do not occur during pregnancy and lactation; The absence of menstruation at the expected time is a common symptom, which makes it possible to suspect a pregnancy.
Menstruation usually occurs every month, but there are non-standard periods of menstruation. Before puberty, during pregnancy and immediately after birth, menopause is absent in menopause. Allocations immediately after childbirth are called lochia and last for several weeks. Sometimes during breastfeeding, menstruation may be absent for a while and in this absence of menstruation, a method of preventing pregnancy as a method of lactational amenorrhea is constructed.
The first occurrence of menstruation (menarche) in a woman occurs in 12-14 years on average; (With a spread of 9-11 years to 19-21 years). Menstruations in hot climates are shown between 11 and 15 years of life; In the moderate - between 12 and 18 years and in the cold - between 13 and 21 years of life. Good nutrition and physical condition accelerate the onset of the menstrual period; And vice versa, inadequate nutrition, excessive labor and poor physical condition slows down its appearance. The age of the menarche reveals certain racial differences: thus, in a number of studies it has been shown that the Negroids have a menarche earlier than the Caucasians living in the same socio-economic conditions.
After the first menstruation, the next may be in 2 or 3 months. Over time, the menstrual cycle is established and lasts for 28 days, but the cycle time from 21 to 35 days is normal. Only 13% of all women have a cycle of exactly 28 days. Menstruation lasts approximately 2-8 days. All the discharges come from the vagina, but cases of endometrial cells entering other parts of the body are possible, then bleeding will go from them.
Menstrual blood is the liquid discharge from the vagina during menstruation. Strictly speaking, the more correct term is the menstrual fluid, because in its composition, in addition to the blood itself, there is a slimy secretion of the glands of the cervix, the secret of the glands of the vagina and the tissue of the endometrium. The average volume of menstrual fluid released during one menstrual cycle is about 35 milliliters. However, the individual variation lies in the range from 10 to 80 milliliters; This range is considered normal, more abundant (or, conversely, meager) discharge may be a symptom of the disease. The menstrual fluid is reddish brown, slightly darker than the venous blood.
The amount of iron lost with menstrual blood is relatively small for most women and can not in itself cause the symptoms of anemia. In one study, a group of women exhibiting symptoms of anemia were examined using an endoscope. It turned out that 86% of them actually suffered from various gastrointestinal diseases (like gastritis or duodenal ulcers, which cause bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract); This diagnosis could not be delivered because of the erroneous attribution of iron deficiency to the menstrual blood loss. However, regularly abundant menstrual bleeding in some cases still can lead to anemia.
General rules for hygiene in menstruation
For adherence to personal hygiene, teenage girls and women use pads that are attached to underwear, and / or tampons inserted into the vagina. In both cases, the lining tissue or tampon absorbs menstrual excretion. In European countries, the United States and Canada, menstrual cups are becoming increasingly popular as personal hygiene products, which are considered more sparing for the health of women and less harmful to the environment than traditional means.
When menstruation is particularly necessary to follow the rules of hygiene (daily shower, washing 2-3 times a day) due to the fact that bloody menstrual discharge is a favorable environment for the reproduction of bacteria, including pathogens. Also you can not use physical activity, you need mental rest.
Medicine is not recommended for full dipping, and baths (as in fresh and salt water), it is recommended to use a shower for bathing. Contraindicated alcohol and spicy food, since the latter increase uterine bleeding, thanks to the influx of blood to the organs of the abdominal cavity.
Sexual intercourse with menstruation
During menstruation, a woman experiences great physical discomfort. The raised hormonal background creates emotional tension, irritation. The uterus during this period is very vulnerable to various kinds of infections. Therefore, during the period of menstruation, sex life should be discontinued.
Use of tampons
When can I start using tampons?
There are no age restrictions. You can use tampons with the onset of the first menstruation. Start with the smallest ones and gradually pick up the most convenient size for yourself.
Will they harm the hymen?
The size and position of the tampon in your body absolutely exclude the possibility of damaging the hymen. The hymen itself is a thin film covering the vagina, with a hole of a small diameter. The correctly inserted tampon is located in the second third of your vagina and does not touch the film at all. In addition, the hymen is very elastic, and on "such" days it becomes even more supple. So you do not have to worry.
Does the size of the tampon depend on height and weight?
No, it does not. The size of the tampon should depend only on the volume of excreta. There is no connection either with the size of the internal organs or with the size of the girl.
Can a tampon get lost inside me?
The tampon can not "get lost" in any way. He's got nowhere to go. Moreover, in modern tampons the rope is sewn so that it can not come off. If you do not get a tampon right away, either it has not yet absorbed enough secretions, or you strain your muscles too much. Relax and try again.
How often should I change tampons?
As necessary, about once every 4 hours. But never leave a tampon in your body for more than 8 hours.
Can I swim and take a shower without taking out a tampon?
Of course. One of the indisputable advantages of tampons is the fact that you can swim with them and feel as comfortable as possible. Only it is better to replace the swab immediately after bathing.
What is a tampon with an applicator for?
The applicator promotes hygienic administration and proper placement of the tampon in the body. When you insert a tampon with an applicator, you do not touch it with your hands. It helps to correctly place the tampon inside exactly at the depth to which it is needed.