Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Botanical characteristic. Umbrella family. An annual herb with a straight cylindrical stem, bare at the bottom and branched at the top, up to 40–80 cm high. It has a thin, fusiform root. Leaves are divided, with linearly filiform lobes. Yellow small flowers are collected at the top of the stem in inflorescences-umbrellas. It blooms in June and July. Seeds ripen in July – August. The whole plant has a strong pleasant spicy smell.
Spread. The homeland of fennel is Persia and India. It runs wild in the European part of Russia, in the Urals, in the Caucasus, in the Baltic states and in Central Asia. Grows near housing. As a spicy and medicinal plant bred in gardens.
Used parts of the plant.
Fennel fruits contain essential oil (2-6%), protein substances (up to 20%), fatty oils (up to 18%), sugars (up to 5%). Essential oil consists of anethole, fenhon, anisic acid, anisaldehyde, anisic ketone, pinene, methylchavicol, fellandrene, limonene and dipentene.
For therapeutic purposes it is used to improve digestion, as carminative, for stomach and intestinal cramps, dyspepsia, and also to enhance lactation, as an expectorant for respiratory diseases.
Fennel fruits are part of breast, choleretic, carminative and sedative.
It is used as an aromatic seasoning in the preparation of vegetable and meat dishes, with salting of mushrooms and cucumbers, in the confectionery industry and in perfumery.
Infusion: 2 teaspoons of fruit insist with 200.0 g of boiling water (in a thermos) - a daily dose.
Fennel preparations are sold in pharmacies. Fennel oil is prescribed for flatulence and as an expectorant (5-10 drops per reception); dill water is prescribed inside 1 tablespoon 3-6 times a day. The carminative collection consists of equal parts of fennel, peppermint and valerian. Accepted with flatulence. One tablespoon of the collection is insisted in a 0.5-liter thermos - a daily dose.