Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Botanical characteristics. Umbrella family. Annual herb with straight cylindrical stem, bare at the bottom and branchy at the top, up to 40–80 cm high. It has a thin, spindle-shaped root. Leaves partitioned, with linear-filiform lobes. Yellow small flowers are collected on the top of the stem in inflorescences, umbrellas. It blooms in June and July. Seeds ripen in July – August. The whole plant has a strong pleasant spicy smell.
Spread. Fennel's homeland is Persia and India. In the wild form is found in the European part of Russia, in the Urals, in the Caucasus, in the Baltic States and in Central Asia. Growing near housing. As a spicy and medicinal plant is bred in gardens.
Used plant parts.
Fennel fruits contain essential oil (2–6%), protein substances (up to 20%), fatty oils (up to 18%), sugar (up to 5%). Essential oil consists of anethol, fenchone, anisic acid, anisic aldehyde, anise ketone, pinene, methylchavicol, phellandrene, limonene and dipentene.
With the purpose of treatment is used to improve digestion, as a carminative, with spasms of the stomach and intestines, dyspepsia, as well as to enhance lactation, as an expectorant for respiratory diseases.
Fennel fruits are part of the chest, choleretic, carminative and soothing charges.
It is used as an aromatic seasoning in the preparation of vegetable and meat dishes, in pickling mushrooms and cucumbers, in the confectionery industry and in perfumery.
Infusion: 2 teaspoons of fruit insist with 200.0 g of boiling water (in a thermos) - daily dose.
Pharmacies sell fennel preparations. Fennel oil is prescribed for flatulence and as an expectorant (5–10 drops per dose); Dill water is administered orally for 1 tablespoon 3-6 times a day. Harvesting consists of equal parts of fennel, peppermint and valerian. Taken with flatulence. One tablespoon of the collection insist in a 0.5-liter thermos - daily dose.