galega officinalis (kozlyatnik) - galeca officinalis l.
Botanical characteristics. Perennial herb up to 90 cm tall. It grows along the banks and valleys of rivers, along streams, along beams, among bushes, in steppes, forests, on forest edges. Taproot, weakly branching, with short rhizome. Stems numerous, erect, densely leafy, hairless, sometimes covered with scattered hairs. Leaves with stipules, petiolate, single-pinnate, up to 10 pairs of oblong or linear-lanceolate at the apex of the peaked leaflets. Calyx bell-shaped with awl-shaped teeth. A moth-type corolla, light blue or pale purple. Fruits are multi-seeded beans. Seeds are smooth, dull, reniform. It blooms from June to August. Fruits until deep autumn.
Used plant parts. Medicinal raw materials are the roots, the aerial parts and seeds, most often the leaves and flowers collected during the flowering of the plant.
Chemical composition. All parts of the plant contain saponins, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, nitrogen-containing compounds: galegin, peganine. In addition, the leaves and flowers are vitamins, phenolcarboxylic acids: coffee, coumaric, sinapic, ferulic and their derivatives; in seeds - steroids, fatty oil, higher fatty acids: palmitic, stearic, linoleic, linolenic; carbohydrates: sucrose, stachyose.
Application. The aboveground part of the plant in the form of decoctions and infusions is used for diabetes. Leaves and flowers are included in antidiabetic fees. They have long been used in folk medicine as a diuretic, diaphoretic, lactogenic, anthelmintic agent.
In the experiment, preparations of the aerial part of the plant exhibit antibacterial activity; extract increases glycogen content in the liver and glucose tolerance, inhibits hepatic insulinase; galegin lowers blood glucose; Peganin tones smooth muscle.
In Bulgaria, galega flowers are used as diaphoretic, diuretic and lactogonic for pregnant women. In the Caucasus, galega is used in food as a seasoning for garnishes, especially seeds.
- For an infusion, take 20 g of the above-ground part of the plant, pour 200 ml of boiling water over it, insist on the boiling water bath for 15 minutes, cool it for 45 minutes without removing it from the bath, filter it. Take 1/3 cup 2-3 times a day.
- For broth, 15 g of seeds (crushed) pour 200 ml of boiling water, leave for 30 minutes in a boiling water bath, cool for 10 minutes, filter. Take 2 tbsp. spoon 3-4 times daily before meals.
- Fresh plant juice is used to wash wounds, ulcers; for gargling - in diluted form (1: 5).
Inside take fresh juice of leaves and flowers - 40-60 drops to 1/2 cup of water 3-4 times a day.