oily sunflower - helianthus annuus
The Asterraceae family.
Botanical characteristics. Annual herbaceous plant originating from South America. The sunflower grows up to 2 m high. The stem is straight, covered with dense hairs, has a spongy core. Inflorescence is a large basket. The marginal flowers are barren, bright yellow, and the inner ones are smallish, tubular, hermaphroditic, yellow-brown. It blooms in July - August. Fruit - achene.
Spread. For the first time, the plant was brought to Europe by Spanish navigators. Long grown as an ornamental and much later began to pay attention to the taste and usefulness of seeds. The sunflower was imported to Russia from the Netherlands by Peter I.
Chemical composition. Leaves and flowers contain pigments, flavonoids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, saponins, phenol carbonic acids, rubber, resinous substances, betaine, choline.
Sunflower seeds are rich in fatty oil, carbohydrates, proteins, fitin, tannins, phospholipids, sterols, carotenoids, organic acids (citric, tartaric, chlorogenic), vitamins A and E.
In sunflower oil, a large amount of glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids - arachidonic, oleic, linolenic, palmitic (which interfere with the sclerotic processes in the human body.
Sunflower threshed baskets are a source of pectin polysaccharide, the production of such a technological process is widely established in Denmark.
Use in medicine. In tropical countries, the spirit tincture of the marginal flowers of the sunflower has long been used to treat malaria, flu, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, during attacks of bronchial asthma, and also as an appetizing remedy.
Fresh sunflower seeds are effective for allergies, bronchitis.
Pectin from sunflower baskets has anti-tumor and anti-radiation effects.
Seeds are a valuable source of vitamin A and E and are useful for children with growth retardation and a slower rate of sexual development, with infertility in patients with diabetes, with impotence in men.
Refined sunflower oil is used for cholecystitis, cholangitis, cholangohepatitis, calculous cholecystitis as a choleretic agent.
- Tincture of flowers and leaves of sunflower ordinary: 1 tbsp. l crushed dried flowers and leaves pour 100 ml of alcohol (70 °) and leave in a dark place at room temperature for 3 weeks. Strain, take 30 drops 3 times a day with the flu, attacks of asthma, with a decrease in appetite.
- Tincture of dry stalks of sunflower ordinary: Dry stalks are crushed and poured vodka in the ratio of 1:10. Insist in a dark place at room temperature for 2 weeks. Strain, drink 2 tbsp. l on an empty stomach during fever.
- A decoction of sunflower stalks: Dry or semi-dry stems finely chopped and filled with water (for 1 tablespoon of raw material 1 glass of water). Boil for 10 minutes. Allow to settle, filter, add honey and drink a glass during the day with tumors.
- A decoction of flower baskets of sunflower ordinary: Small, usually lateral, flower baskets are dried and crushed. 1 tbsp. l raw materials pour 1 glass of water and boil for 5 minutes. Insist 30 minutes. Filter and drink 0.5 cups 3 times a day at the urticaria in patients with diabetes.
Use in nutrition
Since ancient times, sunflower has been cultivated as a food plant, oilseed. The seeds, roasted and ground, are used as a filler in dough, cookies, waffles, as a filling for sweets, and halva and other confectionery are prepared on their basis.
In England, young baskets of sunflowers are added to salads.
Cream of sunflower seeds, cocoa and cream
Seeds are roasted in a pan, allowed to cool and cleaned of the husk. Grind in a coffee grinder, mixed with cream, cocoa, add sugar, and pound carefully. Served for dessert.
- Sunflower seeds - 100 g,
- cream - 30 g,
- cocoa - 10 g,
- sugar - 15 g
Dessert of sunflower seeds and hazelnuts
Seeds are roasted in a frying pan, allowed to cool somewhat, and peeled. Grind in a coffee grinder with pre-dried and peeled kernels of nuts. Dressed with cream, you can whipped, sugar, cocoa. Served for dessert.
- Sunflower seeds - 50 g,
- hazelnut kernels - 60 g,
- cocoa - 10 g,
- whipped cream - 50 g,
- sugar (xylitol) - 10 g