plantain big - plantago major
Family Plantain (Plantaginaceae).
Botanical characteristics. Perennial herbaceous plant. It has a small rhizome with threadlike roots extending from it. The stem is a leafless arrow with a height of up to 15-45 cm. The leaves are gathered in a basal rosette, entire, wide-oval, with thick blood-fiber strands. Small brownish flowers at the end of the stems form inflorescences - spikelets. It blooms in June and August. Fruits - bilocular boxes, ripen in August and October.
A characteristic feature is the property of the plantain to constantly accompany the person (“plantago” in Latin means “foot”, “led”).
Spread. Plantain in our country is widespread, except for the Far North. It grows next to housing, on roads, in glades and meadows.
Used plant parts. Leaves and less often seeds and roots.
Chemical composition. Plantain leaves contain aukubin glycoside, flavonoids (homoplantaginin, plantaginin, derivatives of baikalein and skutelyarein), tannins, bitterness, saponins, traces of alkaloids, vitamins C, K, carotene, as well as choline, adenine, pectin. In the seeds - mucus (up to 44%), fatty oils, aukubin, oleanolic acid, steroid saponins and carbohydrates, protein substances.
Application. Plantain used for therapeutic purposes for a long time. Avicenna also used the leaves and seeds of the plant as a wound healing and hemostatic agent.
In Chinese and Tibetan medicine, plantain is known as a wound healing, diuretic, expectorant and hypoglycemic agent.
The leaves and seeds of plants, plantain preparations are dispensed by pharmacies.
The leaves are harvested during the flowering of the plant and applied fresh, dried, and the seeds are harvested mature.
In folk medicine, plantain is used as a tonic, anti-inflammatory, emollient, sedative, expectorant, bactericidal, hypoglycemic, wound healing, hemostatic agent, it has antiallergic effect, is effective in diathesis, eczema, psoriasis, zemophenia, zidyophenia, zemophenia, zidyone, an zemophenia, zheedey, is effective in diathesis, eczema, psoriasis, and diabetic zyas, and it will also be used.
Preparations of plantain large stimulate the processes of digestion, increase appetite, useful for bloating, colitis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, tumors of the stomach and intestines, diseases of the gall bladder.
The juice of a fresh plant or a decoction of seeds is an active expectorant when coughing, they are drunk, combining with honey for bronchitis, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, hemoptysis, lung cancer, whooping cough.
Infusion of fresh leaves acts as a tonic for fatigue, loss of strength, fatigue, diabetes, anemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, bladder inflammation, kidney disease, and nocturnal incontinence. Infusion and juice of fresh leaves are also used to relieve toxicosis during pregnancy, poisoning with salts of heavy metals, uterine bleeding.
Juice or decoction of leaves has long been treated in traditional medicine pustular skin diseases, boils, carbuncles, non-healing wounds, bruises, bedsores, diabetic gangrene.
Lotions of broth or juice of a fresh plant impose in skin diseases, including malignant type, erysipelas. Plantain juice, mixed with raw egg white, is used to treat first and second degree burns.
Broth seeds drink with infertility, diabetes mellitus with infertility and decreased sexual function.
Juice and decoction of the leaves rinse the mouth with periodontal disease, including diabetic.
Powder leaves of plantain is the basis of the ointment, which is effective for eczema, rash of allergic and pustular type, for the treatment of purulent wounds.
- Powder seeds from plantain take 1.0 g 3-4 times a day 20-40 minutes before meals.
“For cancer of the lung and stomach ... a mixture of finely chopped fresh leaf with an equal amount of granulated sugar is drawn in a warm place for 2 weeks. The resulting liquid is consumed 3-4 times a day, 1 tablespoon for 20 minutes before a meal ”(N. G. Kovaleva).
- Infusion of plantain leaves large: 1 tbsp. l crushed fresh leaves are poured with 1 cup of boiling water and infused in a warm place for 30 minutes. Filter and take a quarter of a glass 3 - 4 times a day before meals for toxemia of pregnant women, poisoning with salts of heavy metals, radionuclides, with bleeding.
- Broth plantain leaves large: 2 tbsp. l dry crushed leaves pour 1 cup boiling water and infuse for 30 minutes, and then boil for 5 minutes. Defend and filter, drink a third of a glass 15 minutes before meals 3 - 4 times a day with the same indications.
- The juice of fresh leaves of plantain large: Fresh leaves are washed thoroughly in running water, and then rinsed with warm boiled. Finely chopped and passed through a meat grinder, a mixer or through a juicer. Juice is used for irrigation of wound surfaces, bedsores, oral cavity during inflammatory processes.
- A decoction of psyllium seeds large: 1 tbsp. l raw materials pour 1 glass of water and boil for 2 minutes. Insist 30 minutes, filter and take 2 tbsp. l a day before meals for infertility, impotence, irregular menstruation.
- Infusion of plantain seeds large: 1 tbsp. l seeds are poured over with boiling water and shaken for 15-20 minutes. Then filter and drink 1 tbsp. l 3 times a day before meals with infertility or weakening of the reproductive system.
- Plantain leaf ointment: Take 10 g of dry leaf powder and mix it thoroughly with 90 g of vaseline. Used as an ointment for pustular skin diseases.
- Ointment with plantain juice: 2 tbsp. l fresh juice from the leaves is thoroughly mixed with 100 g of fresh butter and 1 tsp. honey Use externally on the inflamed, pustular and burn surfaces, lubricating them 3-4 times a day.
- Before lubrication, the wound surface should be washed with hydrogen peroxide, infusion of plantain leaves or a solution of potassium permanganate.
- Powder from the leaves of large plantain: The leaves are thoroughly washed, allowed to drain, dried, and then triturated to a fine powder. Used as a powder for wounds, bedsores, ulcers, abrasions.
- Compress from the leaves of the plantain large: For a compress, use either fresh leaves, which are applied to the sites of tumor changes, or juice, which is moistened with a napkin and applied to a sore spot. Compress 10 to 12 hours. The course - 10 - 12 treatments daily.
Homeopathy. Homeopathic Plantago 3 x, 3, 6, in some patients, causes aversion to smoking tobacco, helps with toothache in the form of rinsing. Plantago is prescribed for enterocolitis, accompanied by intestinal colic and loose stools, for shooting headaches, cardiac neurocirculatory dystonia, thyrotoxicosis, and also as a resolving agent for myomas and mastopathies.